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Articles by A. Samie
Total Records ( 4 ) for A. Samie
  N. Bakhshi , G.R. Ghorbani , H.R. Rahmani and A. Samie
  Localization of normal microflora in the GIT of ruminants is an important factor, which enhances evolution of their digestive system. Probiotics are one of these options, which contribute in this manner. The present study evaluated single or twice daily milk feeding with and without probiotic on daily calves` performance. Forty Holstein calves weighing 43±5 kg were used in a completely randomized design test to study the effects of probiotic on food intake, blood characteristics and coliform bacteria population of feces. Treatments were as follows: T1) control with feeding four liters of milk twice daily, T2) probiotic with feeding four liters of milk twice daily, T3) control with feeding four liters of milk once daily, T4) probiotic with feeding four liters of milk once daily. From first day to end of the experiment (49 days) T2 and T4 received one-gram probiotic in their milk daily. Water and calf starter were offered free choice. Calves were weighed weekly. Intakes of starter were recorded daily and jugular blood sample were taken every 10 days for recording albumin (A), IgA, IgG and A/G ratio. Feces samples were taken every two weeks. Despite findings in earlier reports the results of this experiment did not confirm the positive effect of probiotic on calf performance. Feed intake mean for calves in treatment 2, was 370.8 g and for treatment 1 was 351.8 g. Body weight gain for group with probiotic (T2, T4) and control (T1, T3) was 441.5 and 422.8 g day-1, respectively. Feed efficiency for probiotic treatments and control groups was 1.3 and 1.4 g g-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between probiotic and non-probiotic groups for any of the performance parameters recorded. Feed intake, body weight gain and Feed efficiency for calves feeding milk once daily and twice daily was 372.4 and 348.8 g, 381.6 and 480.9 g day-1, 1 and 1.4 g g-1, respectively. Feed intake was not significantly different (p>0.05) between groups with feeding milk once or twice daily, but body weight gain and feed efficiency were significantly (p<0.05) different between the treatments. In conclusion, probiotic used in this study did not affect the performance of dairy calves, but feeding milk once or twice daily influenced their performance.
  Gh. Sadeghi , A. Samie , J. Pourreza and H.R. Rahmani
  This study was conducted to determine canavanine content and examine the efficacy of soaking in water, acetic acid or heat treatments on the detoxification of bitter vetch for broiler chickens. A total of 1280 one-day old broiler chicks were placed in 64 pens, twenty in each pen. Treatments were included a corn -soybean based diet as control; raw bitter vetch; soaked in water (1:5, wt/vol) for 12 h, autoclaved (121oC, 20min), then dried at room temperature (SAD); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked (75min at 95oC) and dried (GSCD); coarsely ground, soaked at 1% Acetic acid solution for 24h at 60oC (GAAS) bitter vetch in three levels (15, 30, 45%). Each treatment replicated four times. Raw bitter vetch was contained 0.073 percent canavanine. All processing methods reduced canavanine content of seeds to a negotiable amount. Feeding of GSCD and GSAD diet resulted to higher and lower body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) at 21, 42 and 49 days, respectively, than other detoxification methods (P<0.05). Increasing Bitter vetch level from 15 to 30 and 45 percent significantly declined BW, FI and increased FER (P<0.05). Feeding of diet with 15% of GSCD and SAD bitter vetch resulted in performance more similar to control diet (P>0.05). Different detoxification methods had no effect on the liver weight, but pancreas weight decreased in all detoxification methods in comparison to raw bitter vetch (P<0.05). In all bitter vetch treatments liver weights were higher in 30 and 45% in comparison to15% (P<0.05). The results showed that all processing methods were efficient to eliminate canavanine from seeds and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of the bitter vetch for broiler chicken.
  A. Musapuor , J. Pourreza , A. Samie and H. Moradi Shahrbabak
  This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of phytase (0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg diet), calcium (2.275 and 3.25 percent) and available phosphorus (0.175 and 0.25 percent) on phytate phosphorus utilization in laying hens. One hundreds ninety two 30-week age White Leghorn (Hy-line W-36) laying hens were randomly allocated in cages for 12 dietary treatments with arranged of 3*2*2 factorial experiment with four replicates and four hens per replicate. The experimental period lasted 90 days, when the age of hen was 42 weeks. Dietary phytase caused a significant (P< 0.05) increase in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, tibia ash weight, tibia ash percentage, tibia phosphorus, plasma phosphorus and phosphorus digestibility. However, dietary phytase caused a significantly (P< 0.05) decrease in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity and excreta phosphorus percentage. Also phytase had no beneficial effect on egg shell quality traits. Available phosphorus levels had significant effect (P< 0.05) on tibia ash weight and tibia ash percentage. Reduction dietary available phosphorus caused a significant (P< 0.05) decrease in feed consumption. Effect of dietary calcium were significant (P< 0.05) on tibia ash weight, feed consumption and plasma phosphorus. Interaction between phytase and calcium on tibia phosphorus, plasma calcium and excreta phosphorus were significant (P< 0.05). Interaction between phytase and available phosphorus on tibia phosphorus were significant (P< 0.05). Overall, it could be concluded that in low phosphorus diet which food consumption is low, phytase would increase food consumption as well as retention of phosphorus in bones. Also, the lower excreta of phosphorus by using phytase could decrease pollution.
  A.A. Khadem , A. Nouri-Emamzadeh and A. Samie
  The performance of 540 chicks was investigated using a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. All chicks were fed with an identical diet during day 7 (d7) until d13 of age, but a feed restriction policy was applied so that chicks could receive diets at 100 (100%VFIL), 75 (75%VFIL) and 50 (50%VFIL) percentages of their voluntary feed intake levels. Afterwards, by d21 of age, chickens were fed with 6 diets comprising three protein ((NRC 1994) and as 5 (NRC+5%) and 10 (NRC+10%) percentages higher than NRC recommendation) and two L-carnitine (as zero (ZL) and as 50 mg kg-1 (50 L) levels) densities. Chickens were then fed with either ZL or 50L L-carnitine containing diets until day 56 of age. Previously restricted chickens in 75% VFIL and 50% VFIL groups were able to fully recover their body weight by d42 and d49, respectively. Compared to their counterparts, chickens in 50%VFIL group had more appropriate (p<0.05) FCR during the experiment. Although, chickens in NRC+5% group had higher (p<0.05) ADG during d13-d21, but dietary protein and L-carnitine levels had no significant effect on ADG of chickens during the rest of experimental period. Birds in NRC+5% group had relatively (p>0.05) lower mortality rate than their counterpart groups. L-carnitine containing diets decreased (p<0.05) the abdominal fat pad percentage (AFP%) of chickens. It could be concluded that following to a restriction period, proper energy to protein content diets improve the overall performance of chickens and the addition of L-carnitine to diets in this condition could better reduce the AFP% of broilers.
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