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Articles by A. Golian
Total Records ( 9 ) for A. Golian
  A. Golian , M. Mazhari and M.M. Madaeni
  Total 480 day old male Ross broilers were used in a 2󫎾 factorial design experiment to study the effect of free access to whole wheat, dietary wheat level and enzyme supplementation on broiler performance. The 8 treatments were consisted of with/without free access to whole wheat, 2 dietary wheat levels with/without supplementation of exogenous wheat enzyme. Every dietary treatment had 5 replicates of 12 birds each. All starter (1-21 day), grower (21-39 day) and finisher (39-44 day) diets were provided isocaloric and isonitrogenous to meet nutrient requirements of broiler chickens. Whole wheat consumption of birds was 11, 18 and 8% of starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively. Feed intake of birds was highly reduced when they had free access to whole wheat whereas dietary wheat level (25 vs 50%) and enzyme supplementation did not influence feed intake. Live body weight, carcass weight and cuts were not affected by free access to whole wheat whereas a reduction in dietary wheat level and enzyme supplementation increased live body weight and breast weight measured at 44 day of age. Free access to whole wheat or reduction in dietary wheat level improved feed conversion efficiency during each and entire period of study. Enzyme supplementation of diet improved performance when wheat inclusion level increased over 25% of diet. Economic of using free access to whole wheat strategy and inclusion of wheat in the diet depends on the trade of between reduction in feed handling costs and loss of performance in broiler production.
  V. Khaksar , A. Golian , H. Kermanshahi , A.R. Movasseghiand and A. Jamshidi
  A complete randomized design experiment with 9 dietary treatments was conducted to evaluate the effect of prebiotic Fermacto® and digestible amino acid levels on performance, gut development and transit time of feed of Ross male broiler chicks. Each diet was fed to five pens of 12 chicks each, during starter (0-21 day), grower (22-41 day) and finisher (42-47 day) periods. Three diets were provided to meet 100 (control), 95 and 90% of Recommended Digestible Amino Acids (RDAA) of starter, grower and finisher periods. The starter and grower diets were further subdivided into 3 parts and supplemented with 0.0, 0.0; 2.0, 2.0 and 2.0, 1.0 g kg 1 Fermacto®, respectively. Body Weight Gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was recorded and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was calculated during 1-21, 22-41, 42-47 day. The carcass yield and cuts of broiler chicks were measured at the end of the experiment. Chick weight was recorded individually to determine the uniformity at day 7, 21 and 47. Chromic oxide at the rate of 0.3% was added to each diet to determine the Gastrointestinal Transit Time (GTT) at day 16 and 32. Tissues from the midpoint of ileum and jejunum was excised to assay the lactobacillus bacteria counts in ileum and villi height, surface area and lamina propria thickness in jejunum of chicks at 21 day of age. Fermacto® supplementation of starter and grower diets improved BWG, FCR, breast yield and gut development regardless of DAA levels in diet. Addition of more than 1.0 g kg 1 Fermacto® in the grower diet did not further improve the BWG or FCR. Flock uniformity was increased (p<0.05) by the inclusion of Fermacto® in diet as compared to non-Fermacto® treated at day 21 when fed 100 or 90% RDAA diets. Fermacto® prolonged the GTT of feed and increased (p<0.05) the ileal lactobacillus counts and improved the jejunal histological traits. Performance and breast yield of broiler chickens fed 95% RDAA diet was similar to those fed control diet, whereas birds fed diet contained 90% RDAA were significantly smaller and less efficient as compared to control birds. Formulating diet based on 95% RDAA did not have a negative effect on performance, but may decrease environmental pollution and cost of broiler chicken production. A 10% decrease in RDAA increased AF, lowered GTT, ileal lactobacillus counts and weakened jejunum morphometry.
  A. Hassanabadi , A. Golian and H. Nassiri-Moghaddam
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of D-Thyroxine (T4) on compensatory growth of broiler chickens. The experiment was designed in a 25 factorial with 5 replicate pens of 12 male or female chicks each. Six hundred male and/or female day-old chicks were weighed and randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups of each sex. Five treatments including: A control (C, with no feed restriction and T4) and 4 restricted groups which were fed a mixture of 50:50 rice hulls and a starter diet with supplementation of trace minerals and vitamins from 4-11 days of age. All groups were fed similar diets from 11-56 days of age, with the exception that the diets of 4 restricted groups R0, R1, R2 and R3 were supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 ppm T4 from 11-28 day, respectively. The lowered LBW of` R0 birds was compensated at 42 day, whereas the LBW of R1, R2 and R3 treated birds was decreased as the level of T4 was increased. The LBW of R1 and R2 treated birds were similar at 49 day and this was lower than (p<0.05) the C and R0 birds. Among the T4 treated birds, only the R1 birds could complete a compensatory growth at 56 day. The LBW of R0 birds was numerically higher than of C birds at 56 day. The FI of birds with the exclusion of ground rice hulls was not different (p>0.05) among the C, R0 and R1 birds during 1-42 or 49 and/or 56 day but this FI value was significantly higher than obtained from R2 and R3 birds. The FCR of R0 birds was numerically better than of C or T4 treated birds, whereas all T4 treated birds exhibited a poorer FCR during 1-42 or 49 and/or 56 day. The performance parameters in male chicks were significantly better than of female chicks. Carcass fat content of the R0 treated birds was significantly lower than that of control or other treated birds (p<0.05). Carcass fat content of male chicks was lower than (p<0.05) that of female chicks. AFP of the R0 birds was lower than (p<0.05) that of control or T4 treated birds at 49 day, whereas all birds had a similar abdominal fat at 56 day. Therefore, compensatory growth in broiler chicks can be achieved at 42 day with diet dilution in early of life. The dietary T4 depressed performance characteristics. Serum Thyroxine was increased by feed restriction and reached to normal level when birds were re-fed.
  M. Salarmoini and A. Golian
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary Ca levels on True Metabolizable Energy (TME) and TME with nitrogen correction (TMEn) values of 3 fat sources (cotton seed oil, animal fat and a 50:50 mixture). The fats were each added at the level of 0, 3, 6 and 9% to 2 basal low and high Ca content diets. The true metabolizable energy of experimental diets was determined using precision fed rooster assay method. The TME and TMEn of 3 fat sources were obtained through regression and extrapolation to 100% fat replacement in basal diets. The addition of Ca carbonate to the zero added fat diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced the TMEn of diet (3348 vs. 3294 kcal kg-1). The true metabolizable energy of animal fat was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of cotton seed oil (8619 vs. 9974 kcal kg-1). However, the TMEn of fat and oil mixture was similar to that of oil value (9974 vs. 9915 kcal kg-1). The TMEn of fat decreased as the level of fat increased (p<0.01) when it was calculated by the difference method. Addition of Ca carbonate to the diets contained any sources of fat significantly (p<0.05) reduced the TMEn value of fat. The metabolizable energy of fat linearly (p<0.05) reduced in response to increase in dietary fat levels as determined by difference method.
  V. Khaksar and A. Golian
  This study was conducted to compare the effect of feed formulation based on ileal digestible versus total amino acid on broiler performance. Two experimental diets formulated to meet nutrient requirements based on total amino acids (NRC) and/or recommended ileal digestible amino acids (Creswell and Swick). One hundred and twenty days old chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 12 chicks each. Body Weight Gain (BWG) and feed intake were recorded for periods of 1-21, 22-41, 42-47 and 1-47 days. Chicks were individually weighed on day 7, 21 and 47 to determine the group uniformity. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used in diets to evaluate the passage time of feed through the gastrointestinal tract on day 16 and 32. At the end of experiment, 1 bird with the average pen weight from every pen was selected and slaughtered to measure carcass yield, breast, thigh and drum sticks, abdominal fat, gut, gizzard and ceca weights. The results showed that birds fed diet formulated on the digestible amino acid basis had higher BWG, breast yield and lower feed to gain ratio and abdominal fat pad than those fed diet on total amino acid basis. Transit time of feed was not affected by feed formulation, but increased as birds aged. Flock uniformity reduced over time and was not influenced by type of diet.
  H. Zarghi and A. Golian
  A factorial design experiment was conducted to study the performance of broiler chickens fed five different levels of triticale replaced for corn (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%), in a corn-soy based diet with/without exogenous enzyme supplementation. Each treatment diet fed to four groups of ten male birds each. The starter, grower and/or finisher diets were isocalric and isonitrogenous and fed ad libitum from 4-10, 11-28 and 29-42 days of age, respectively. Similar weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion observed in birds fed control or diets contained up to 75% triticale replaced for corn. However, the average daily feed intake and feed conversion were increased when 100% of corn was replaced with triticale during 4-42 days of age (p<0.01). The exogenous enzyme supplementation did not affect broiler performance. Gizzard and small intestine weights increased with an increase in triticale in diet when measured at 18 and 42 days of age. This study revealed that diets containing up to 40% triticale (or 75% of corn replacement) had no negative effect on broiler performance. Whereas chickens blood serum cholesterol and HDL were elevated when fed enzyme supplemented corn or triticale-soy diets.
  H. Ahmadi and A. Golian
  The Neural Network (NN) is an alternative to regression analysis for system modeling. It is a set of nonlinear equations used to predict output variable(s) from input variable(s) in a flexible way using layers of linear regressions and S-shape functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fitness of the NN model to 2 sets of empirical weekly data obtained from first and second cycle of egg production. The goodness of fits for the obtained NN model were calculated by R2 value, adjusted R2, Mean Square Error (MSE), Residual Standard Error (RSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and the bias. The NN model adjusted R2 for first and second cycle of egg production were 0.999 and 0.998, respectively. These very high adjusted R2 revealed that the NN model is a better fit than those previously reported by the estimated regression models. It is concluded that the NN model may provide an effective mean to draw the pattern of egg production during the first and second cycle.
  H. Ahmadi and A. Golian
  Mathematical models describing growth kinetics are important tools to predict biological phenomena such as BW at a specific age, a maximum growth response and/or growth rates. Classical models such as Gompertz and Richards have been extensively used to describe broiler studies. Recently, for accurate prediction or describtion of growth behavior in biological system, a group of flexible growth models known as hyperbolastic with 3 or 4 parameters are introduced. These models may predict variety of growth behaviors for continuous output as occurs in cancer and stem cell growth studies. In the present study, three new flexible hyperbolastic growth models, called H1, H2 and H3 were evaluated to determine their strength in describing the relationship of BW and age of broilers or compatibility with two classical growth models of Gompertz and Richards. A growth data set of 217 male broiler chickens raised for 170 days were used to test and compare the fitness of the growth models. Goodness of fit for the models were determined by Mean Square Error (MSE), R2, Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Based on our overall calculated goodness of fit criteria, it is revealed that the H3 model provides the most promising fit and it was reduced when the H2, Richards, Gompertz and H1 models were used, respectively. The more precise fitness observed with the H3 model might be due to its more flexibility. The hyperbolastic growth models in particular the H3 model is considered to be a more accurate tool for predicting broiler growth curve. However, it suggested to examine the fitness of different models to hire the best fit.
  S.A. Mirghelenj , A. Golian and V. Taghizadeh
  An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dietary added fish oil on performance, Fatty Acid (FA) composition and sensory traits of broiler chicken meat. Four hundred and fifty, 28 days old Ross, 308 male broiler chickens were divided into 30 groups of similar body weight of 15 birds each. Six grower isocaloric/isonitrogenous diets contained 0-5% fish oil were provided and each was fed to 5 groups of birds from 28-42 days of age. Production performance was measured weekly, whereas Fatty Acid (FA) profile of thigh and breast meat were determined in 3 chicken from each replicate at the end of experiment. There was not any significant effect (p>0.05) of dietary treatments on birds Feed Intake (FI), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and livability. The amount of long chain n-3 FAs (Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)) in thigh and breast were increased significantly as the level of added fish oil increased in the diet (p<0.05), whereas linoleic acid (n-6) and alpha linolenic acid (n-3) content of this 2 cuts were not affected by the level of dietary fish oil (p>0.05). The breast and thigh meat from birds fed diets with 0, 1 and 2% fish oil were in the acceptable range (scores <2) to the panelists. The DHA content of breast and thigh of birds fed diet with 0-2% fish oil, increased from 0.046 and 0.086 (mg g-1) to 0.166 and 0.27 (mg g-1), respectively. A significant linear relationship was found between the levels of fish oil and EPA in breast fillet and thigh (R2 = 0.59 and R2 = 0.71, respectively) and also for DHA (R2 = 0.71 and R2 = 0.72, respectively).
 
 
 
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