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Articles by Zafar Iqbal
Total Records ( 8 ) for Zafar Iqbal
  S.M. Alam , Muhammad Akhtar , Zafar Iqbal and A. Latif
  Effect of applied and residual P from two sources,di calcium phosphate (DCP) and single super phosphate (SSP), were evaluated by growing wheat, brassica and berseem crops in a pot experiment. The criteria used were plant yield and P uptake. Both of the P sources for grain and straw yield of brassica, residual as well as applied P did not improve the yield. However, grain yield of wheat, fodder yield of berseem and total P uptake by these crops were found to improve significantly due to residual and applied P as DCP compared to SSP. A heavy P application from DCP showed positive residual effect and resulted in increased yield and P uptake by wheat and berseem. These results, therefore, strongly advocate the suitability of DCP as a P fertilizer source.
  Muhammad Hussain , Muhammad Naeem , M. Yasin Ashraf and Zafar Iqbal
  Effect of salinity on yield of three barley cultivars Jou-83, Jou-87 and Haider-93 were investigated. It was noted that the number of fertile tillers, spike length, 100 seed weight, yield per plant were higher in Jou-83 followed by Jou-87 and Haider-93. Jou-87 produced highest number of grain per ear followed by Jou-83 and Haider-93. Grain yield production was highest in Jou-83. Reduction in yield per plant in highest salinity level compared to control was 77.22 % in Jou-83 while the corresponding value was 91.78 % for Jou-87 and 86.35 % for Haider-93. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions increased with increase in salinity levels in all plant parts (root, stem and leaf). Jou-83 maintained lowest Cl- ion concentration than other varieties while Na+ ion accumulation was slightly higher than Jou-87.
  Waqar Ahmad , Bashir Ahmad , Manzoor Ahmad , Zafar Iqbal , Muhammad Nisar and Mansoor Ahmad
  The 80% methanolic extract of Myricaria elegans Royle was investigated for in vitro acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibition activities. The crude extract was found to have significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (74.8%) and remarkable butryrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (96.0%). However, no activity was observed against the enzyme lipoxygenase (0.0%).
  Zafar Iqbal , Altaf Hussain , Muhammad R. Asi and Jamil A. Chaudhry
  Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of pesticide applications on soil nitrification dynamics in cotton agroecosystem. The pesticides either alone or in combination (mixture) were applied according to the normal agricultural application rates in test, farmer (with pesticide applications) and control (without pesticide applications) fields. Soil samples were collected before and after two days, following pesticide applications and at sowing, before pesticide application, after all pesticide applications, at harvest and at post harvest time during the crop seasons 1997-1999. Soils were incubated under laboratory conditions using ammonium sulfate as substrate. In 1997 crop season soil samples were incubated for 28 days with a substrate of 144 mgkg -1 soil while in 1998-1999 the incubation period was 14 days with substrate of 212 mgkg -1 soil. The soil samples were analyzed for total (NO2 + NO3) N content using steam-distillation method. Othofonprox, profenophos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin + endosulfan inhibited while, endosulfan, imidachloprid, methamidophos, endosulfan alongwith dimethoate, profenophos + alphmethrin, chlorpyrifos + tralomethrin + acetamiprid and cyhalothrin + profenophos + diafenthiuron stimulated the nitrification. All other pesticidal applications have no effect on this parameter. Samples collected at different intervals of time from all the fields in three years study showed no differences in nitrification from sowing to harvest. The variations observed, in general, being very week and transient and resulting in a recovery of nitrification.
  S.M. Alam , Zafar Iqbal , A. Latif and M. Akhtar
  Pot experiments were conducted to compare DCP, an industrial bye-product, against standard fertilizer SSP for growth and P uptake behaviour and to evaluate the performance of DCP as a P fertilizer source for several crop species. Single superphosphate and DCP were applied @ 0, 22, 44, 88, and 176 mg P kg -1 to a loam soil (Lyallpur III series, typic ustocrept). The first crop series grown were wheat, lentil and chickpea while the second series contained sorghum, maize and mungbean and in third series bermuda grass, brassica and berseeem were used. After each crop harvest soil samples were drawn for P analysis and the same P rates from two sources were applied to respective pots. Plants were grown for various time periods before harvesting and P uptake was estimated. Rate of P application increased DMY and P uptake, but the P rate required for maximum DMY varied depending on crop requirements. Brassica, bermuda grass and mungbean were less responsive to applied P while berseem, maize and sorghum responded more to P application. The behaviour of the two sources for DMY and P uptake by the six crop species were mostly alike. However, for crops that responded more to P application, DCP proved similar or sometimes superior to SSP. The amount of residual P after each crop harvest was significantly higher in DCP as compared to SSP applied treatment.
  Taous Khan , Waqar Ahmad , Shumaila Bashir , Zafar Iqbal , Bashir Ahmad Manzoor Ahmad , Nisarullah , Muhammad Arfan and Farzana Shaheen
  The seed oil of Abroma augusta Linn. was studied for biological and pharmacological properties. The oil was also screened for various in vitro biological and pharmacological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and brine-shrimp cytotoxic activities. The oil exhibited remarkable phytotoxic activity against Lemna aeguinoctailis Welve. It was also explored to posses moderate antifungal activities against Trichophyton schoenleinii (56%) (human pathogens) and Microsporum canis (50%) (animal pathogen). The Abroma augusta seed oil did not shows the significant antibacterial, insecticidal activities and Brine shrimp cytotoxicity.
  Misbah Sultan , Haq Nawaz Bhatti and Zafar Iqbal
  The present project was undertaken to evaluate the quality of ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand, on the basis of their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil of two ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand was extracted by hydro distillation. Essential oil content was found to be 0.98 (China) and 1.58% (Thailand). Chemical analysis of essential oil was carried out by GC-FID. Essential oil of Thailand ginger sample contained α-pinene 3.59, α-phallendrene 2.84, myrecene 4.58, β-pinene 0.74, γ-terpinene 2.49, 1, 8-cineol 3.87, citral 5.39 and zingibrene 30.81%. Essential oil of China ginger sample contains α-pinene 0.305, α-phallendrene 1.02, myrecene 4.82, γ-terpinene 2.88, 1, 8-cineol 2.4, α-terpinene 6.5, citral 4.5 and zingibrene 8.0%. Ginger sample from Thailand was found to be better in quality due to higher percentage of essential oil (60%).
  Muhammad Ismail , Zafar Iqbal , Bashir Ahmad , Shahida Zakir and Uzma Niaz
  The ethanol (70%) crude extracts of Rheum emodi and Paeonia emodi were screened for various biological and pharmacological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and brine-shrimp cytotoxic activities. It was explored that the extracts of both these plant posses moderate antifungal activities. The Rheum emodi exhibited remarkable phytotoxic activity against Lemna aeguinoctailis Welve while the said activity of the Paeonia emodi was also reasonable. However, these extracts did not show any significant antibacterial, insecticidal activities and Brine shrimp cytotoxicity during this study.
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