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Articles by Zafar Iqbal Khan
Total Records ( 7 ) for Zafar Iqbal Khan
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain , Muhammad Ashraf , Hans- Werner Koyro , B. Huchzermeyer , Muhammad Yousaf and Muhammad Saeed Akhtar
  An investigation was conducted in central region of Punjab, Pakistan to study the relationship of mineral (Na) in soil, plantand animal systems to enable prediction of sodium status of three different classes of goats and sheep grazing the pasture. From goat and sheep ranch soil, forage, feed, waterand animal samples (Blood plasma, milk, faecesand urine) were collected fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. At goat ranch it was found that seasons did not affect soil, forageand plasma Na+ concentrations. These samples were lower than the required range in relation to Na+ levels. The fecal, urineand milk Na+ losses were found to be responsible for low plasma Na+ status in different goat classes. At sheep ranch soil, feedand plasma, milk and urine sodium concentrations in lactating sheep were affected by seasonal changes. Forage sodium level during summer was at marginal deficient and during winter it was slightly deficient. In lactating sheep plasma had marginal deficient level of sodium in winter and moderate deficient level in summer. While in non lactating sheep plasma sodium was also moderately deficient in summer and marginal deficient in winter and in male sheep moderately deficient level of sodium in plasma was found in summer only. Fecal and urine loss of sodium in lactating and non lactating animals was lower during winter than those during summer. Milk loss of sodium was found to be higher in winter than that in summer. From these results it is concluded that Na+ status of goats and sheep in this specific region needs supplementation with mixture of salt containing Na+ to enhance the Na+ levels of grazing animals.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain , M. Ashraf , M.Y. Ashraf , Muhammad Yousaf , Muhammad Saeed Akhtar and Arshad Maqbool
  This article briefly describes common mineral imbalances affecting grazing ruminants at farms, their mineral requirements, factors affecting these requirements and different methods of detection of mineral status of the animal. The benefits and limitations of mineral analyses of soil, forage, animal tissues, and fluids samples for the purpose of identifying and preventing mineral disorders of grazing animals are discussed. The role of minerals as buffers, in immunity, as antioxidant and their bioavailability from various sources have also been described.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , M. Ashraf , M. Y. Ashraf , Z. Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  A study was conducted to determine the potassium status of lactating, non-lactating and male goats on farm located in Southern Punjab. A mineral supplement were available to all animals throughout the year. Soil, forage, water, feed and animal samples (blood plasma, milk, faeces, and urine) were taken 8 times fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. On the basis of results of analyses soil K+ was deficient for the requirements of plants during summer while forage K+ concentrations were below the critical values during both seasons. The contribution of feed K+ in maintaining the K+ level of animals was also not prominent. From plasma analyses it was found that K+ was below the normal levels in lactating and male goats during both seasons and in non-lactating goats only during summer. The loss of K+ through milk, faeces and urine was high during both seasons. Overall K+ status of these goats based on plasma concentrations may be considered inadequate mainly due to low forage K+ concentration which were found low to deficient. Key words: Potassium, status, goats, soil, forage, water, milk and plasma
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Muhammad Ashraf , Muhammad Yasin Ashraf , Zia-ur-Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  A study was carried out to evaluate the cobalt status of grazing goats on the basis of cobalt concentration in soil, dietary sources, plasma, milk, faeces, and urine as affected by seasons and animal class. It was found that only forage had seasonal variation with grater concentration in winter than that in summer. Soil and forage Co concentration were inadequate for the normal requirements for plants and animals during both seasons. Positive association was found between plasma Co levels and sources of Co consumed by animals. Higher plasma Co concentration was found in male goats as compared to that in other groups while fecal Co concentration was higher in lactating goats that that in other classes during both seasons. Although the Co concentrations in forage, the principal dietary factor were deficient, but the plasma Co levels in all classes of goats were sufficiently high showing the contribution of feed and water in complementing the forage Co required by animals for normal body function. The overall Co status of goats may be considered adequate mainly due to feed supplement, since forage Co concentration was low to deficient.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Muhammad Ashraf , Muhammad Yasin Ashraf , Zia-ur-Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  The study was conducted at the Livestock Experimental Station Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, southern Punjab, Pakistan, to determine the translocation of mineral nutrients from soil to plants and from plants to goats and sheep. Soil and forage samples were collected fortnightly from two sites of the same farm, during winter and summer of 2001. Feed and water samples were also collected along with soil and forage to study the effect of mineral supplement contained in feed. Samples of blood, milk, urine and faeces were obtained from 60 animals consisting of 30 sheep and 30 goats during the two seasons of the year, grouped into 3 classes with 20 animals per class of each animal type as follows: Class 1 contained 10 lactating sheep or goats, class 2 comprised of 10 non-lactating sheep or goats and, class 3 consisted of 10 male sheep or goats. All the soil, forage, feed, water and animal samples were analysed for 10 minerals like Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Se2+. In the site having sheep population all the soil minerals except Co2+ and Se2+ were found to be above the critical levels and considered adequate for normal plant growth during both seasons, while Co2+ and Se2+ in the soil were deficient during both seasons. Forage Na+ and Zn2+ in summer were at marginal deficient levels and in winter only Na was slightly deficient. Feed Ca2+ levels were marginally deficient during both seasons for normal requirements of sheep. Soil samples taken from the pasture grazed by goats had marginal deficient levels of soil K+ in the summer season, moderate soil Na+ during winter and marginal deficient during summer and sever deficient levels of Co2+ and Se2+ during both seasons of the year. While forage contained severe deficient level of K+, moderate deficient level of Na+ and marginal deficient level of Co2+ during winter and marginal deficient Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+ and Se2+, moderate deficient level of Fe2+ and severe deficient levels of K+, Na+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ during summer season. Feed Ca2+ concentrations were moderately deficient during both seasons. The effects of feed supplement at both ranches in raising the plasma mineral level was different in different groups of animals in different seasons. The moderate deficient level of plasma minerals like Ca2+ and Na+, marginal deficient levels of K+ and Mg2+ during winter and summer and to that of Cu2+ during summer in lactating goats, while in non-lactating goats in plasma, moderate levels of Ca2+ and Na+ and marginal deficient levels of plasma K+ and Mg during both seasons were found. Plasma of male goats contained marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ during winter, K+ during both seasons and Mg2+ during summer, while moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ were found in summer and Na+ during both seasons of the year. In lactating sheep plasma had marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ in summer K+ and Na+ in winter, Mg2+ in both seasons and moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ in winter and K+ and Na+ in summer season, while in non-lactating sheep plasma Ca2+ was in moderate deficient level in winter and Na+ in summer. In addition, marginal levels of Ca2+ during summer and those of Na+ during winter and of K+ and Mg2+ during both seasons were observed. In male sheep plasma K+ and Mg2+ in both seasons. Ca2+ in summer and Na+ in winter were marginal deficient minerals while Ca2+ in winter and Na+ in summer were in moderate deficient levels. However, the supplementation of feed containing minerals seemed to be contributed much to the well being of the animals particularly with no micro mineral in plasma overwhelmingly deficient. No toxic accumulation of any mineral was found in forage or feed during this study. Based on mineral status of the animals, Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cu2+ were deficient in plasma which may be a factor for limiting livestock production in this specified region of Pakistan. Supplementation with fortified mixtures containing these elements in appropriate proportion with high bioavailability would seem adequate in these regions during both seasons of the year to increase the productivity of goats and sheep at that farm. Studies should be carried out to determine the need and economic benefits of mineral supplementation.
  Altaf Hussain , Zafar Iqbal Khan and Dr. Ejaz Rasul
  Eleven fungal species namely Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium spp. Alternaria alternata, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifers, Fusarium moniliforme and Cephalosporiopsis sp. were isolated. Out of these species, first 7 were amylolytic and last 4 were pectinolytic. These species were employed for the production of amylases and pectinases respectively. Among the amylolytic species the glucoamylase activity (IU/ml) in surface cultures was found in the order; 17.4 ,15.20,14.0,9.6,5.0,4.50, and 4.00 for A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, Penicillium sp., F. pallidoroseum, F. oxysporum and Alternaria alternata respectively and glucoamylase activity in submerged cultures was found for the same fungal strains in the order; 10.00, 9.00, 6.80, 6.20, 5.0, 3.88 and 3.50 units/ml respectively. Among the pectinolytic fungi the pectinase activity was found only in the surface culture in the order; 15.30,12.00,10.20, and 8.00 units/ml for Rhizopus stolonifers, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium moniliforme and Cephalosporiopsis sp. respectively.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain and Muhammad Sadiq
  Different Media were optimized for plant regeneration from callus initiated from mature embryos of Indica rice on media with various levels of 2,4-D alone and in combination with various concentrations of Benzyle adenine. Plant regeneration was achieved in both MS and N6 media with and without various levels of growth regulators. In addition to green plants, production of albino plants was also observed in all the media tested for regeneration. The composition of each Callus induction and regeneration media was found to be responsible for the recovery of higher number of plants.
 
 
 
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