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Articles by Zaenal Bachruddin
Total Records ( 4 ) for Zaenal Bachruddin
  Raden Lukas Martindro Satrio Ari Wibowo , Zaenal Bachruddin , Nanung Agus Fitriyanto , Tomoyuki Nakagawa , Takashi Hayakawa and Ambar Pertiwiningrum
  Background: Puffer fish skin tannery is an alternative to substitute the production of hide and animal skin in Indonesia that has been decreasing. To improve the quality of puffer fish leather, keratinase was needed by removing the thorns. Objective: The aim of this study was to screen bacteria that show keratinolytic activity. Methodology: The isolated bacterial strains were screened for the production of extracellular keratinase using skim milk agar. After incubation, the formations of a clear zone around the bacterial growth were observed. They were identified based on morphological enzyme activity and molecular identification. Bacterial screening and identification were conducted with descriptive method. The microbial activity tests were analyzed using a completely randomized design. Results: The result of the screening was that 3 of 5 kinds of strains exhibited caseinolytic activity (by showing the clear zone). Three Bacillus bacteria that were newly isolated from puffer fish waste-using a feather enrichment technique-were identified on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis, physiological and carbohydrates assimilation tests. They were revealed as the strains of Bacillus thuringiensis for BRAW_PT isolate, Bacillus aerius for BRAW_PB isolate and Bacillus firmus for BRAW_PI isolate. The results of proteolytic enzymes assay showed that Bacillus firmus BRAW_PI has the highest protease and keratinase activity, which was 37.52±0.96 and 6.781±0.479 U mg–1 consecutively. Conclusion: All bacteria obtained were the superior bacteria that can be used for the removal of thorns from puffer fish skin in the tanning process.
  Engkus Ainul Yakin , Zaenal Bachruddin , Ristianto Utomo and Ria Millati
  Objective: The study was conducted to determine the effect of manganese (Mn2+) addition on cocoa pod fermentation using Phanerochaete chrysosporium Pc2804. The enzyme activities of LiP and MnP, as well as the fiber fraction and digestibility of the cocoa pod, were evaluated. Methodology: The treatments were as follows: T1 = Cocoa pod fermentation without Mn2+, T2 = Cocoa pod fermentation with the addition of 200 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate, T3 = Cocoa pod fermentation with the addition of 400 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate, T4 = Cocoa pod fermentation with the addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate and T5 = Cocoa pod fermentation with the addition of 800 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate. The observed variables were LiP and MnP activity, analysis of the fiber fraction including NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose and an analysis of in vitro digestibility. Results: The results showed that the addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate to cocoa pod fermentation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces the highest LiP and MnP activities: 0.199±0.00 and 0.098±0.00 U mL–1, respectively (p<0.05). The addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate to cocoa pod fermentation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium Pc2804 causes a decrease in NDF (75.83±0.78%), ADF (67.49±0.41%), lignin (25.27±0.41%), hemicellulose (8.34±1.05%) and cellulose (31.53±0.68%) (p<0.05). The addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate to cocoa pod fermentation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium Pc2804 produced the highest DM digestibility, which was 70.86±0.22% and the highest OM digestibility, which was 70.47±0.47% (p<0.05). Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g–1 substrate to cocoa pod fermentation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium Pc2804 gives the best digestibility of the cocoa pod.
  Insani Hubi Zulfa , Zaenal Bachruddin and Asih Kurniawati
  Background and Objective: Modifying rumen fermentation using plant secondary metabolites has long been used as a nutritional strategy to improve feed efficiency and it leads to higher livestock productivity. An essential oil (EO) is a plant secondary metabolite with volatile characteristics that has various bioactive compounds and plays an important role in manipulating the fermentation process in the rumen and modifying feed efficiency. The aim of the study was to observe the effect of lemongrass leaves (Cymbopogon citratus), which are Indonesian herbs containing an essential oil (EO), as potential agents to manipulate rumen fermentation and to observe their effects on the rumen microbial population and nutrient digestibility in an in vitro system. Methodology: Five inclusion levels of lemongrass leaves (LEM), which were equal to the EO levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg L1 on a DM basis, were added to a diet consisting of king grass and rice bran (40:60). An in vitro rumen fermentation method was used to determine nutrient digestibility and anaerobic inoculations were used to determine the total microbial count. All of the treatments were replicated five times and the collected data included the total rumen microbial population count, total protozoa count, dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD), crude protein digestibility (CPD) and crude fiber digestibility (CFD). Results: No difference was observed in the total protozoa count; however, an increase in EO supplemented with LEM decreased the total ruminal microorganism count (p<0.001). Furthermore, the inclusion of LEM in the diet affected DMD, OMD and CPD. The inclusion of LEM at 50, 75 and 100 mg L1 decreased (p<0.01) OMD by 5.54, 5.24 and 6.17% and reduced DMD (p<0.01) by 10.02, 9.26 and 11.38%, respectively. Furthermore, there was considerable evidence that supplementation with LEM inhibited deamination, which resulted in low CPD. Interestingly, CFD was not affected by the addition of LEM. Conclusion: The study suggested that LEM caused a reduction in the total number of rumen microbes and that it potentially decreased ruminal digestibility; thus, EO supplemented with LEM should be limited to 25 mg L1.
  Engkus Ainul Yakin , Zaenal Bachruddin , Ristianto Utomo and Ria Millati
  Background and Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of cocoa pod fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with the addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g1 substrate on the performance of the Javanese thin-tailed sheep. Materials and Methods: Twelve Javanese thin-tailed sheep with body weights of 15-17 kg were put into individual cages that were equipped with feed and drink containers. The study used a completely randomized design in a unidirectional pattern, with three treatments and four replications. The treatments involved the use of cocoa pod fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with the addition 600 μg Mn2+ g1 substrate as thin-tailed sheep feed. The treatments were T1 = 40% concentrate+60% forage, T2 = 40% concentrate +42% forage +18% fermented cocoa pod and T3 = 40% concentrate +18% forage +42% fermented cocoa pod. Rations were prepared for a crude protein determination of 12%. Observed variables included dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio. Results: The results showed that feeding Javanese thin-tailed sheep cocoa pod fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with the addition of 600 Mn2+ g1 substrate produced the highest DM, OM and CP consumption with a composition of 40% concentrate +18% grass +42% fermented cocoa pod, at 1030.85±1.30, 672.26±0.89 and 123.80±0.99 g head1 day1, respectively (p<0.05). The highest DM, OM and CP in vivo digestibility was obtained with 40% concentrate +18% grass +42% fermented cocoa pod (67.69±0.50%, 66.33±0.54% and 60.05±0.66%, respectively). The highest average daily gain (145.46±1.05 g head1 day1) was obtained with 40% concentrate +18% grass +42% fermented cocoa pod. The lowest feed conversion ratio (7.39±0.08) was obtained with 40% concentrate +18% grass +42% fermented cocoa pod (p<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that cocoa pod fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with the addition of 600 μg Mn2+ g1 substrate can be used to substitute for up to 42% of dietary composition for Javanese thin-tailed sheep.
 
 
 
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