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Articles by Z.S. Lowman
Total Records ( 2 ) for Z.S. Lowman
  Z.S. Lowman and C.R. Parkhurst
  Hatchery sanitation is of the utmost importance in the poultry industry and may have drastic economic effects within a company. It has been shown that eggs with increased total aerobic bacterial counts may cause a decrease in hatchability, performance and growth, as well as a decrease in overall chick quality. Several methods have been utilized to decrease bacterial load on the exterior surface of the egg such as the use of: hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, antibiotics and UV light exposure. Many disinfectants may effectively sanitize the egg; however, they have detrimental effects on the developing embryo due to the removal of the cuticle, allowing increased moisture loss from the egg. Benzalkonium chloride has been effectively used as a first aid antiseptic for humans. Bac-D, a novel disinfectant with benzalkonium chloride utilized as the active ingredient. Bac-D is a safe, potential substitute to harsh chemicals. In this trial, eggs were sprayed with the same volume of either Bac-D or water. Eggs were sampled at 3 different time points after spray (0, 1.5, or 3 h). At the culmination of each time point, a portion of the eggs was inoculated with an endogenous bacterial inoculum. Eggs were placed in a bag with 1% PBS and the rinsate was promptly plated on TSA (Tryptic Soy Agar). There were significant decreases (p<0.0001) in the log CFU/mL numbers at each time point (0, 1.5, 3 h). These results reveal the potential sanitizing effects of Bac-D on total aerobic bacterial counts on eggs.
  Z.S. Lowman , F.W. Edens , C.M. Ashwell and S.J. Nolin
  In field trials, heat-exposed chickens given Actigen®, a second generation mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maintained good intestinal health and performance. This investigation explored the influence of Actigen® on heat shock protein (HSP) responses in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Gender-segregated broilers were given either a control or Actigen®-supplemented (800 g/ton in starter, 400 g/ton in grower and 200 g/ton in finisher) diet over a 6 week growing period. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, broilers of each gender on each diet were exposed to 41°C for 1 h in a temperature-controlled chamber while controls were maintained at 24°C. After heat exposure, liver and ileum tissues were collected and preserved in RNAlater for determination of gene expression via Real Time PCR. Significant differences in mRNA expression for HSP90A, HSP90AA and HSP90B due to gender were found in the ileum, but no gender-related differences for these HSPs were found in the liver. In all heat-exposed birds, gene expression was elevated for HSP90A, HSP90AA, HSP90B, HSP70 and HSP60 in both liver and ileum with males at 3 and 6 weeks of age showing the greater HSP response. Lower Actigen®-related HSP90AA and HSP90B mRNA expression in the liver suggested that Actigen® potentially modified HSP expression outside the intestinal tract. Actigen® mechanism (s) of action outside the intestine are equivocal, but they might be indirect. Lower HSP mRNA expression in Actigen®-fed birds indicated that the supplement can modify the HSP response while allowing continued good performance during heat-exposure.
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