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Articles by Z.F. Bhat
Total Records ( 8 ) for Z.F. Bhat
  Z.F. Bhat and Hina Bhat
  Nutrition-related diseases, food borne illnesses, resource use and pollution and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production system and consumers have expressed growing concern over them. Biofabrication, production of complex living and non-living biological products, is a potential solution to reduce these ill effects of current meat production system. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the long term, biofabrication can contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies that can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing animal-free food, leather and fur products. In this study we review the possibility of producing in vitro meat using tissue-engineering techniques that may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems. Besides, reducing the animal suffering significantly, it will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe and disease free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controlled and manipulatable. The techniques required to produce in vitro meat are not beyond imagination and the basic methodology of an in vitro meat production system (IMPS) involves culturing muscle tissue in a liquid medium on a large scale but the production of highly-structured, unprocessed meat faces considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish a sustainable in vitro meat culturing system on an industrial scale. In the long term, tissue-engineered meat is the inescapable future of humanity. However, in the short term the extremely high prohibitive cost of the biofabrication of tissue-engineered meat is the main potential obstacle, although large-scale production and market penetration are usually associated with a dramatic price reduction.
  Z.F. Bhat and Hina Bhat
  Not available
  Sunil Kumar , Z.F. Bhat and Pavan Kumar
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of apple pulp on the quality characteristics of Shrikhand. Various levels of apple pulp viz. 0, 10, 20 and 30 percent were used in the preparation of Shrikhand replacing chakka in the formulation. Further the use of dried ‘Celosia argentea’ (flower part only) as a colouring agent in the preparation of the Shrikhand containing optimum level of the apple pulp was explored. The protein, fat and ash percent of the Shrikhand decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas moisture content increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing level of apple pulp. On the basis of various sensory parameters, Shrikhand containing 20% apple pulp and dried Celosia argentea flower was selected as optimum. The product was further packed in polystyrene cups and stored under refrigerated conditions at 4±1°C for a period of three weeks. The mean scores of all the sensory parameters decreased significantly (p<0.05) with storage. Total plate count and psychrophilic count increased significantly (p<0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) values also increased significantly (p<0.05) with storage period. The product was acceptable for a period of three weeks under refrigerated conditions.
  S.A.A. Bukhari , V. Pathak , Z.F. Bhat and S.R. Ahmad
  Kaladhi is a hard and dry cheese variety of Jammu and Kashmir which is prepared by directly acidifying the milk with organic acids without the use of rennet and starter. Storage quality of Kaladhi prepared by using different organic acid coagulants at their optimum level viz., 5% acetic acid, 5% citric acid and 5% lactic acid was assessed in terms of physicochemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties at ambient temperature (21-25°C) for 28 days. Fresh buffalo milk standardized to 5.5% fat and 9% SNF was used for the preparation of the product using different organic acids as coagulants at 40°C and the Kaladhi prepared traditionally using day old whey as coagulant served as control. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in most of the physico-chemical parameters i.e., titratable acidity, free fatty acids (% Oleic acid) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. However, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in pH and most of the proximate parameters was observed. Similarly, sensory scores also decreased significantly (p<0.05) during the storage period in all the three types of Kaladhi prepared by using different organic acid coagulants. The microbial characters viz. total plate count and yeast and mold count increased significantly (p<0.05) throughout the storage period. The yeast and mold counts were observed to increase rather rapidly and incessantly beyond 14 days of storage. Based on various physico-chemical and sensory parameters, Kaladhi prepared from lactic acid at 5% level proved to be optimum with 11.14% yield, 32.54% moisture, 25.45% protein, 50.39% fat (on dry matter basis) and 2.44% ash.
  Pramod Kumar Singh , Sunil Kumar , Pavan Kumar and Z.F. Bhat
  Growing awareness and preference of the consumers towards the minimum processed meat with natural sensory and nutritive characteristics leads to the introduction of non thermal techniques for the decontamination of meat. The Pulse Light (PL) and the Pulse Electric Field (PEF) are the latest non thermal techniques employed for decontamination of meat without production of any harmful toxic compounds. These techniques retain the natural freshness, colour and nutritive characteristics of meat in comparison to thermal and heat processing. The present review discusses the PL and PEF techniques in enhancing the storage life of meat.
  Z.F. Bhat and Hina Bhat
  Role of food as an agent for improving health has proposed a new class of food, called functional food, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value. Milk and dairy products have been associated with health benefits for many years containing bioactive peptides, probiotic bacteria, antioxidants, vitamins, specific proteins, oligosaccharides, organic acids, highly absorbable calcium, conjugated linoleic acid and other biologically active components with an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth and immunoregulation. Consumer's increasing interest for maintaining or improving their health by eating these specific food products has led to the development of many new functional dairy products. These dairy products contain many functional ingredients that decrease the absorption of cholesterol, can significantly reduce blood pressure, play role in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders and may exert antimicrobial effects. This paper reviews and discusses some of the latest findings regarding the role of milk and dairy products as functional foods.
  Z.F. Bhat , V. Pathak , S.A.A. Bukhari , S.R. Ahmad and H. Bhat
  Harrisa is a popular indigenous ready to eat meat based product of Jammu and Kashmir. An attempt was made to standardize the processing technology by optimizing the basic formulation and processing conditions for the preparation of Harrisa from chevon meat. Harrisa developed from chevon was aerobically packed in LDPE pouches and evaluated for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a shelf life of 1 week at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). The storage of chevon Harrisa resulted in significant (p<0.05) decrease in almost all the quality attributes and sensory scores, but all the parameters were well within the limits of acceptability. The mean values of various observed physico-chemical and proximate parameters of the product viz., pH, protein percent, fat percent and ash percent showed a significant (p<0.05) increasing trend whereas the moisture percent values of the product decreased significantly (p<0.05) during refrigerated storage. The mean sensory scores indicated that chevon Harrisa was highly acceptable although all the sensory parameters showed a significant (p<0.05) decline with storage. Texture and flavour seemed to have decided the overall palatability of the product. The mean values of the total plate count and psychrophillic count increased significantly (p<0.05) whereas the coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The highest values for total plate count (2.37±0.008) and psychrophillic count (1.68±0.018) were observed on day 7 of storage. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values also increased significantly (p<0.05) with storage period. Thus, Harrisa standardized from chevon meat and packed aerobically in LDPE pouches is acceptable up to one week of refrigerated (4±1°C) storage without much decline in the quality of the product.
  Z.F. Bhat and H. Bhat
  Scientific progress in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health has an increasingly profound impact on consumer's approach to nutrition which has resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods. It is a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. The term functional foods comprises some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing health-promoting physiologically active compounds in addition to the traditional nutrients which are beneficial for human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Consumer's increasing interest for maintaining or improving their health by eating these specific food products has led to the development of many new functional foods. Most of these new formulations are dairy products, vegetable based products, specific fats, etc., but so far only few of them are based on meat products. Meat and meat products can be modified by adding ingredients considered beneficial for health or by eliminating or reducing components that are considered harmful. The use of these ingredients in meat products offers processors the opportunity to improve the nutritional and health qualities of their products. This study reviews and discusses some of the findings published in recent years regarding the functional meat products.
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