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Articles by Z.A. Zakaria
Total Records ( 11 ) for Z.A. Zakaria
  Z.A. Zakaria , C.A. Fatimah , A.M. Mat Jais , H. Zaiton , E.F.P. Henie , M.R. Sulaiman , M.N. Somchit , M. Thenamutha and D. Kasthuri
  The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible antibacterial activity of aqueous (AEMC), methanol (MEMC) and chloroform (CEMC) extracts of Muntingia calabura using the in vitro disc diffusion methods. The sterilized blank discs (6 mm diameter) was impregnated with 20 μL of the respective extract (in the concentration of 10,000, 40,000, 70,000 and 100,000 ppm) and tested against Corneybacterium diphtheria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Kosuria rhizophila, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli (O 157), Aeromonas hydrophila and Salmonella typhi. At all concentrations tested, the AEMC was effective against S. aureus and K. rhizophila while the MEMC was effective against S. flexneri, B. cereus, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, A. hydrophila, K. rhizophila. This activity was not observed with the CEMC. At the concentration of 40000 ppm and above, the AEMC exhibited significant antibacterial activity against C. dihptheriae, P. vulgaris, S. epidermidis and A. hydrophila; the MEMC was effective against C. diphtheriae and L. monocytogenes; and the CEMC was effective against S. aureus. Finally, we concluded that M. calabura possesses a potential antibacterial property that is comparable to the standard antibiotics used. The results also suggest the presence of more potent polar antibacterial compound.
  Z.A. Zakaria , H. Zaiton , E.F.P. Henie , A.M. Mat Jais and E.N.H. Engku Zainuddin
  The present study was carried out to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and chloroform extracts of the leaves and fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi L. using the standard disc diffusion test. The air-dried leaves and fruits of A. bilimbi were separately soaked in distilled water or chloroform (1:10; wv-1) for 24 h and the resultant supernatants were filtered. The aqueous extract was freeze-dried while the chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness under reduce pressure to obtained the crude dried extracts, which were prepared in the concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg mL 1 prior to the antibacterial assay. The results obtained demonstrated the potential of A. bilimbi extracts against some of the Gram-positive and-negative bacteria. The 100 mg mL 1 aqueous extract of A. bilimbi’s leaves and fruits showed positive antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermis B. cereus, C. diphteriae with the latter also gave positive effect against K. rhizophila. Both extracts also exhibited positive antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative S. typhi, C. fuendii and A. hydrophila. On the other hand, the 100 mg mL 1 chloroform extracts of A. bilimbi’s leaves and fruits demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermis, B. cereus, K. rhizophila and C. diphteriae and Gram-negative S. typhi, C. fuendii, A. hydrophila and P. vulgaris. In conclusion, the A. bilimbi leaves and fruits possess potential antibacterial activity that requires thorough study.
  A.M. Mat Jais , Z.A. Zakaria , A. Luo and Y.X. Song
  The present study was carried out to screen the in vitro antifungal activity of various extracts of Channa striatus (Haruan) against 13 filamentous fungus and 2 non-filamentous fungus (yeast) obtained from the China General Microbiological Culture Center (CGMCC) using the filter paper, Oxford cylinder and inoculation techniques. Both extracts 1 and 2 were prepared in distilled water under pressured cooking, but extract 2 was added with special blend of soup spices. The mucus extract was collected in distilled water as extract 3, after 1 h hypothermal shocked being introduce at -20°C to the fish. In addition, extracts 4, 5, 6 and 7 were obtained by soaking the fillet separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform and chloroform: methanol (2:1; w v 1). Additional experiments on the fish fillet extracts’ antibacterial activity against various strains of Staphylococcus aureus were also carried out using the single concentration microdilution method. The results obtained demonstrated that only extract 5 (ethanol) inhibited the growth of Neurospora crassa 3.1601, Aleurisma keratinophilum 3.3544 and Cordyceps militaris 3.4655 after 24, 46 and 64 h of treatment. The same extract also inhibited the growth of Botrytis pyramidalis 3.1930 and Paecilomyces fumosa-roseus 3.3727, but only for the first 24 and 46 h. All extracts did not show any signs of growth inhibitory effect when tested against the S. aureus strains. This is very important for although the inhibition was not strong enough to kill some of the affected fungus, the partial inhibition by an animal (fish) based extract will be of better use for human consumption to avoid unnecessary repercussion.
  M.R. Sulaiman , Z.A. Zakaria and R. Lihan
  The present study was carried out to determine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Tinospora crispa stem. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the writhing and hot plate tests, while, the anti-inflammatory was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The air-dried stems of L. japonica were soaked in ethanol (1:5; w/v) at the temperature of 48°C for 48 h. The supernatant collected was evaporated under reduced pressure and kept at -80°C until used. Prior to each experiment, the extract was dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) to prepare the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg kg 1. The extract administered intraperitoneally exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose-dependent manner in all assays used.
  Z.A. Zakaria , A.M. Mat Jais , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman and C.A. Fatimah
  The present study was carried out to elucidate some of the basic physical properties of the bioactive compounds responsible for Channa striatus antinociception. The aqueous extract of C. striatus was obtained after soaking the fish fresh fillet in the ratio of 1:2 (w/v) in chloroform: methanol (2:1; v:v) overnight. The extract, in the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was subjected to the centrifugation-filtration process using the Millipore Ultrafree-CL low binding cellulose filters with different pore size (5,000, 10,000 and 30,000 dalton) prior to the abdominal constriction test in mice, respectively. Subsequently, the 100% concentration extract was also subjected to the analytical high performance liquid chromatography (using a Gilson 715 HPLC equipped with two slave 306 pumps and analytical reverse-phase Vydac C-18 column (10 μm, 0.46 x 25 cm) set at 40°C, with the flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1 absorbance at the wavelength of 220 nm was monitored by a wavelength UV detector; the eluant A was 100% methanol and eluant B was 80% methanol in dH2O) to establish its chromatogram profiles and the first fraction obtained was collected and subjected to the same antinocceptive assay. The non-filtered extract was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception (p<0.05). Except for the 30,000 dalton extract, the 5,000 and 10,000 dalton extracts antinociception were significantly different (p<0.05) from the non-filtered extract. Furthermore, the chromatogram profiles of C. striatus aqueous extract revealed the presence of four major fractions while the first fraction, prepared in the concentrations of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg kg-1, was found to exhibit significantly (p<0.05) concentration-dependent antinociception. Based on the present data obtained, it is plausible to suggest that at least four types of bioactive compounds with molecular weight ranging from lower than 5,000 dalton as well as between 10,000 to 30,000 dalton presences in the aqueous extract of C. striatus.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman and A.M. Mat Jais
  The present study was conducted with an aim of establishing the best organic solvent system that can yielded the Channa striatus extract with highest antinociceptive activity and also to determine the polarity of the respective bioactive compound using the acetic acid- induced abdominal constriction test. Briefly, the Channa striatus fillet were extracted separately with methanol, ethanol, chloroform, chloroform:methanol and distilled water overnight. This procedure is repeated three times and each of the supernatant obtained was pooled together and then subjected to the evaporation process. The extracts obtained was prepared in the doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g kg-1 and administered subcutaneously (SC) into mice. Thirty min after the administration of extracts, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally (IP). All solutions were administered in the volume of 10 mL kg-1. From the data obtained, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds to be of two types, the polar compound that is water-soluble and the non-polar compound that is fat-soluble. These two compounds might act alone, as in DH2O and chloroform extracts or act together, as in CM, methanol and ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the ability of this compound(s) to exhibit the antinociceptive activity in all the three types of solvents also suggested the presence of peptide compound. However, further investigation need to be carried out in order to isolate and identify the respective compound. In addition, methanol and chloroform:methanol were found to be the best solvents for further isolation of the respective bioactive compound of Channa striatus.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.R. Sulaiman , M.N. Somchit and A.M. Mat Jais
  The onset and offset time of aqueous supernatant of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (ASH) antinociception was evaluated using the abdominal constriction test. The ASH, extracted using chloroform:methanol (2:1; v:v) overnight and then evaporated to remove the residual solvent, was prepared in the concentration of 10, 25 and 100% and administered subcutaneously (SC) at four different set of time (0, 5, 30 and 60 min). At the end of the respective time, acetic acid (0.6%) was administered intraperitoneally (IP) and the number of abdominal constrictions was then calculated. ASH was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception. The onset time of antinociception was found to be between 0 to 5 min depending on the concentration of ASH used with the highest and lowest concentrations of ASH produced antinociception 0 and 5 min after their administration, respectively. This activity, which increased with increase in time of ASH administration, was found to reach the highest level after 30 min of ASH administration regardless of the concentration used. The offset time, on the other hand, does not depend on the concentration of ASH used. The three respective concentrations of ASH antinociception were found to diminish completely after 60 min of their administration. Interestingly, it was also found that ASH produced activity comparable to that of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
  M.R. Sulaiman , S. Moin , A. Alias and Z.A. Zakaria
  The present study was carried out to determine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Sida rhombifolia L. leaves in various animal models. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction test and hot plate test, while the anti-inflammatory was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The dried leaves of S. rhombifolia was mixed with 95% ethanol (1: 10; w/v), incubated in water bath (55°C) for 72 h, filtered and evaporated to dryness (50°C) under reduced pressure. The sticky paste of extract was then emulsified using 0.1% Tween-80 in normal saline at concentrations required to produce doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg kg 1 body weight. Based on the data obtained, all doses of the extract, administered intraperitoneally, exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the leaves of S.rhombifolia possessed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities and confirms its traditional uses in the treatment of pain-and inflammatory-related ailments.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman , A.M. Mat Jais and C.A. Fatimah
  The present study was carried out to determine the involvement of various receptor antagonists in and the effect of pH and enzymes on the recently reported antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura leaves (MCAE) using the abdominal constriction test. The extract was prepared by soaking the dried powdered leaves of M. calabura in distilled water (dH2O) overnight and the supernatant obtained was considered as a stock solution with 100% concentration/strength. The MCAE, administered s.c. at the concentrations of 5, 50 and 100%, were found to show significant antinociceptive activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The 50% concentration MCAE was further used to study on the above mentioned parameters. The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) decreased in activity when pre-treated (s.c.) against 10 mg kg-1 naloxonazine, 10 mg kg-1 pindolol and 5 mg kg-1 atropine, but not 10 mg kg-1 -funaltreaxamine, 10 mg kg-1 naltrindole, 10 mg kg-1 phenoxybenzamine, 10 mg kg-1 bicuculine or 5 mg kg-1 mecamylamine, respectively. The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) increased in activity after pre-treatment at alkaline pH (pH 9 and 11) while maintaining the activity at the extreme acidic and alkaline conditions (pH 2 and pH 13), respectively. The extract activity was not changed after pre-treatment against -amylase, protease, lipase or their combination, when compared to the dH2O-pre-treated group, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that the M. calabura leaves peripheral antinociception involved, at least in part, activation of µ-opioid, -adrenergic and muscarinic receptors and resist the effect of extreme acidic and alkaline conditions as well as various enzymes.
  M.R. Sulaiman , Z.A. Zakaria , S. Moin , M.N. Somchit and Y.S. Chai
  The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flowers’ buds in various experimental animal models. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests, while, the anti-inflammatory was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema. The dried flower’s buds of L. japonica was added with distilled water (1:10 w v 1) and boiled for 2 h at 80°C. The supernatant collected was freeze-dried overnight and prior to use was diluted to the desired doses. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg kg-1; administered intraperitoneally) exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays used. In conclusion, the flower’s buds of L. japonica possessed potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities that require further in-depth studies.
  M.N. Somchit , S. Faizah , A. Zuraini , H.M. Khairi , A.H. Hasiah and Z.A. Zakaria
  Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are heterogenous group of compounds used to cure and prevent inflammation. It was demonstrated that NSAIDs has the ability to inhibit the viability of colon cancer cells in vitro. We investigated the effects of Piroxicam and mefenamic acid on the viability of 4 cancer cell lines in which 2 of them are colon cancer cell lines (HCT 116 and CaCo-2). Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Both NSAIDs was observed to markedly decrease the cell viability of both cell lines (HCT 116 and CaCo-2). Piroxicam was statistically more cytotoxic towards the cancer cell lines when compared to mefenamic acid. However, the cytotoxic effect of NSAIDs was less potent on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and liver cancer cells (Hep G2). In conclusion, piroxicam and mefenamic acid showed selective cytotoxic effects against colon cancer cells but not against liver or breast cancer cells.
 
 
 
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