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Articles by Z. Zainal
Total Records ( 4 ) for Z. Zainal
  A. Rifau , Z. Zainal , D. Mutharasu , A. Fauzi , Y. Kiros , B. Zhu and R. Zanzi
  An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) has been developed by using the dry pressing method. Widely studied materials were used for anode and cathode and SDC based electrolyte was used in this study. The cells were fabricated by dry-pressed at different pressures using a die without any binding material, a known amount of three electrode materials in powder form were pressed together and a nickel mesh was used as current collector. The test area of the fabricated cells was 0.785 cm2. The experiments were conducted using H2 as fuel and compressed air as oxidant. The cells were tested under different operating temperatures with varying fabrication parameters. The fabricated cells recorded an open cell voltage (OCV) of 765mV while operating at 560°C. The maximum current density obtained was 726mA/cm2 and with a power density of 193mW/cm2
  A.B. Nasrin , A.N. Ma , Y.M. Choo , S. Mohamad , M.H. Rohaya , A. Azali and Z. Zainal
  Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.
  Z. Zainal , E. Marouf , I. Ismail and C.K. Fei
  Plant defensins are a group of pathogenesis-related defense mechanism proteins. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the chili defensin gene under the control of a Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter were generated. The 5 kDa peptide, corresponding to the chili defensin protein was detected in the total protein fraction extracted from the transgenic plants. When compared to partially-purified peptide extracts from untransformed tomato plants, those from transgenic plant possessed the ability to reduce the growth of several fungi in vitro. T2 transgenic plants were selected and tested for resistance against Fusarium sp. and Phytophthora infestans. The transgenic lines were more resistant to infection by these pathogens than the control plants.
  O.P. Shing , T.Y. Ping , Taufiq-Yap Y.Hin and Z. Zainal
  Doped ceria is considered the most promising high-conducting electrolyte, alternative to the commercially used yttria-stabilized zirconia. The ceria fluorite structure is very tolerant to dissolution of lower valent metal ions. The present employed mechanical method, introduces comparison of mechanical-synthesized yttrium-doped ceria system, denoted as Ce1-xYxO2- δ(0.05≤ x≤0.4), which were successfully synthesized by both conventional solid-state and mechanochemical methods. In mechanochemical reaction, fine-grained powders with uniform grain size distribution were obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis showed all solid solutions were single phase with cubic fluorite structure. The electrical conductivity of sintered samples of calcium doped ceria compounds were investigated in air as a function of temperature using AC impedance spectroscopy. Impedance data showed that yttrium-doped ceria electrolyte is a good ionic conductor with conductivity as high as 10-3 ohm cm-1. Further characterization using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were carried out.
 
 
 
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