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Articles by Z. Pausova
Total Records ( 2 ) for Z. Pausova
  C Syme , M Abrahamowicz , G. T Leonard , M Perron , L Richer , S Veillette , Y Xiao , D Gaudet , T Paus and Z. Pausova
 

Objectives  To investigate during adolescence (1) sex differences in blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamic factors at rest and during physical and mental challenges and (2) whether these differences are mediated by body composition and glucose and lipid metabolism.

Design  Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort.

Setting  Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada, from November 2003 to June 2007.

Participants  A total of 425 adolescents (225 girls aged 12-18 years).

Outcome Measures  Systolic and diastolic BP measured using a Finometer. Secondary outcome measures were (1) hemodynamic parameters also measured with a Finometer, (2) body composition assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, bioimpedance, and anthropometry, and (3) metabolic indices determined from a fasting blood sample.

Results  Girls vs boys demonstrated lower systolic and diastolic BP at rest and during challenges, with the differences being greatest during a math-stress test (adjusted difference, 7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4-10 mm Hg and adjusted difference, 6 mm Hg; 95% CI, 4-8 mm Hg, respectively). The differences were mainly due to girls vs boys having lower stroke volume while lying down, standing (adjusted difference, 4 mL; 95% CI, 1-7 mL), and sitting, and lower total peripheral resistance during the math-stress test (adjusted difference, 0.14 mm Hg · s/mL; 95% CI, 0.09-0.21 mm Hg · s/mL). Intra-abdominal fat was positively associated with BP, but less in girls than in boys, and fat-free mass, fat mass, and insulin resistance were also positively associated with BP, similarly in boys and girls.

Conclusions  In adolescence, BP is lower in girls than boys, with the difference being determined mainly by lower stroke volume during physical challenges and by lower total peripheral resistance during mental challenges. Body composition and insulin resistance contribute to these differences.

  C Bourdon , S Hojna , M Jordan , J Berube , V Kren , M Pravenec , P Liu , S Arab and Z. Pausova
 

Obesity is a leading cause of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Molecular signals produced by adipose tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of these two disorders. We showed previously that a specific segment of rat chromosome 20 (RNO20) contains a gene(s) regulating the degree of obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). Here we examined microarray gene expression profiles and cellular morphology of adipose tissues and whole body energy expenditure in this model. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a congenic strain (SHR.1N) that differs from SHR by the above-mentioned segment of RNO20 were fed for 12 wk with HFD or a normal diet. At the end of this period, whole body energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry. In response to HFD, body weight, fat pad weights, adipocyte size, and serum leptin levels increased significantly more in SHR.1N than SHR. Microarray gene expression profiles [Affymetrix, 15,923 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs)] showed that multiple genes of molecular pathways involved in lipogenesis were downregulated to a similar level in both strains, whereas genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy dissipation were upregulated less in SHR.1N than SHR. This was associated with lower whole body energy expenditure in SHR.1N than SHR at the end of the 12-wk HFD. Our results suggest that a gene(s) within the RNO20 segment regulate(s) HFD-induced increases in adiposity, and that this effect may be mediated, at least in part, by the impact of that gene(s) on fat burning and energy expenditure.

 
 
 
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