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Articles by Z. Liu
Total Records ( 8 ) for Z. Liu
  L Fan , F Zhang , G Wang and Z. Liu

Motivation: EMAN is one of the most popular software packages for single particle reconstruction. But the particle clusters produced during its model refining stage are of low qualities. We attempt to refine the particle clusters by more accurately determining orientations of particles, and thereby achieving higher resolutions of consequent 3D structures.

Results: A particle reclustering framework (PRF) is introduced, which consists of three components. Each of them is responsible for one of the basic tasks of PRF: normalization, threshold determination and reclustering. Our implementation is also described and proved to meet the constraints proposed by PRF. Experiments revealed that our implementation improved resolutions of consequent structures for most cases, but only a little extra execution time was incurred. Therefore, it is practical to incorporate PRF in EMAN to improve qualities of generated 3D structures.

Availability and Implementation: Implementation of our algorithm is available upon request from the authors.

Contact: [email protected]; [email protected]

  Z. Liu , B. Wang and Q. Tang
  In WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), an optimized way of prolonging the networks lifetime and flooding packets is to find the minimum CDS (Connected Dominating Set). In this study, a new method called ATISA (Approximation Two Independent Sets based Algorithm) for constructing CDS is proposed. The ATISA has three stages. The first stage is constructing a connected set CS (connected set) and the second stage is constructing a connected dominating set CDS and the third stage is pruning the redundant dominators of CDS. The performance ratio of ATISA is approximately (9.67+19nk) when the number of nodes is bigger enough and the message complexity is O(n). Compared with some famous CDS construction algorithms, ATISA constructs the CDS with the smallest size.
  Z. Liu , G. Wu , M.M. Bryant and D.A. Roland Sr.
  A 3 x 4 factorial experiment with three protein levels (17.52, 16.24 and 15.22%) and four added synthetic lysine levels (0.0000, 0.0295, 0.0590 and 0.0884%) was conducted to determine the influence of adding synthetic lysine in er diets while maintaining a 0.75 Met+Cys/Lys ratio. In this experiment, a total of 1,440 Hy-Line W-36 hens (first phase of second cycle) were randomly divided into 480 cages with 3 birds per cage. Five adjoining cages consisted of a group and then the ninety-six groups were randomly assigned to 12 dietary treatments. The results showed there were no interactions (P > 0.05) between protein level and added synthetic lysine on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, egg weight or feed conversion. Protein effects were observed for feed intake (P < 0.01), egg production (P < 0.01), egg mass (P < 0.01), egg weight (P < 0.05) and feed conversion (P < 0.05). There was no difference (P > 0.05) obtained among the four supplemental synthetic lysine levels, indicating the influences of adding synthetic lysine on performances was not significant (P > 0.05) for hens fed diets containing a low protein level up to 15.22% and with feed intake at approximate 100 g/hen/day.
  Z. Liu , A. Bateman , S.S. Sohail , B. Zinner and D.A. Roland Sr.
  Two studies were conducted to compare bioavailability of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) relative to DL-methionine (DLM) in layers. The bioavailability was compared for egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion. In trial 1 five supplemental levels of methionine (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10%) from DLM or MHA-FA source were added respectively to a basal diet containing 14.97% protein, 0.27% methionine, and 0.24% cystine. Hy-Line W-36 hens (1,760) 37 weeks old were used. Egg production was not improved beyond the first 0.02% added methionine level. Thus, an accurate bioavailability value of MHA-FA relative to DLM could not be obtained, indicating that this test was not statistically sensitive enough to estimate the bioavailability of MHA-FA relative to DLM. In trial 2, 1,920 Hy-Line W-36 hens 53 weeks old were used in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment with three protein levels, two supplemental methionine levels, and two methionine sources. DLM and MHA-FA were compared at different protein and supplemental methionine levels on an equimolar basis. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between the 0.02% and 0.04% supplemental methionine level or between DLM and MHA-FA in egg production, egg mass, or feed conversion. Because no difference in egg production, egg mass and feed conversion between 0.02% and 0.04% methionine could be detected and that difference should be greater than the difference between DLM and MHA-FA, no potential differences between DLM and MHA-FA could be detected. There was a difference (P < 0.05) in egg weight between the two supplemental methionine levels. Although the average egg weight of hens fed DLM was not higher (P > 0.05) than that of hens fed MHA-FA, the difference was calculated to indicate that the bioavailability of MHA-FA might be 88.9% on a molar basis or 78.2% on a weight basis.
  W.W. Zhang , Y.G. Zhang and Z. Liu
  The objective of this experiment was to determine the fermentation quality of wet Potato Pulp (PP) treated with different absorbents. The absorbents were three agricultural by-products, dry Rice Straw (RS), dry Corn Stovers (CS) and dry Bean straw with Pods (BP). Four different ingredient combinations were investigated: 100% PP (Control), 80% PP+20% RS (RSP), 80% PP+20% CS (CSP) and 80% PP+20% BP (BPP). The laboratory bags were kept in the room, then were opened on 0, 3, 7, 10 and 50 days after ensiling for fermentation quality and chemical analysis, respectively. There was 110.52 mL kg-1 silage effluent production in the control while the absorbent treatments had no effluent losses. The Dry Matter (DM) loss was higher in the control (21.22% DM) than all the absorbent treatments (RSP, CSP and BPP) and the differences were significant (p<0.05). For all silages, there was a fast and large reduction in pH from the 3rd day of ensiling to <4.2. After ensiling, the pH value in all silages attained <4.00. The absorbents inhibited the break down of silage protein and the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) content of absorbents addition silage significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control after 50 days of ensiling. Compared with the control, only the treatment RSP resulted in higher (p<0.05) lactic acid concentration. The acetic acid content in the absorbent treatments were (p<0.05) lower than that of the control silage. All the absorbent silages had a higher quality Fleig point than the control silage (p<0.05). These results indicated that adding the absorbent to potato pulp silage could prevent the effluent losses and reduced the silage DM loss during the ensiling and improved the fermentation quality.
  An experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted on a Lexington soil (fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic, Ultic Hapludalfs) and a Loring soil (fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic, Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs) in Mississippi from September 1997 to September 2000 on 18 runoff plots under natural rainfall condition to study the phosphorus (P) dynamics in poultry litter amended soils under three management systems combining tillage and planting date treatments to identify effective management practices in southern U.S.A. The management systems in the study were: 1) tillage in the fall prior to litter application followed by a delayed planting of fall forages (CT-DP); 2) tillage followed by immediate planting of the fall forage with subsequent litter application (CT-IP); and 3) no-till with planting prior to litter application (NT-IP). The results indicated that there was significant increase in soil P after 3 years of poultry litter application for both Lexington and Loring soils (P< 0.05). Based on P budget analysis, the majority of P from poultry litter application (> 90%), was accumulated in both soils. In Loring soil, soluble P mass in the runoff was significantly higher from NT-IP than from CT-DP and CT-IP over the entire study period (P< 0.01). For both soils, there were no significant differences in sediment P mass between management systems. For Loring soil, CT-DP and CT-IP were effective management practices to mitigate negative effects due to poultry litter application.
  J. Wen , L. Li , J. Chen , S. Ji , C. Zheng and Z. Liu

Objective: To observe the influence of the Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (T II) on the blood concentration of tacrolimus and analyze the impact of this effect.

Method: Twenty-two renal transplant receipts taking tacrolimus combined with the T II were selected for this study. We analyzed the blood concentrations and the rate of concentration compared with dosage (C/D rate) pre- and postcombination over 6 months. All cases underwent the CYP3A5 genotype test.

Result: The concentrations of tacrolimus were raised to a certain degree after the combination in all the cases. The first-time elevation differed from 1 week to 4 months. The C/D rate increased by 1.7 to 7.2 times with most evaluated C/D rates ranging from 1.8 to 3.8. The elevated C/D rate of the subgroup of CYP3A5 1*/1* and 1*/*3 (n = 10) contrasted with the *3/*3 genotype subgroup (n = 12: 2.99 ± 1.71 vs 2.55 ± 1.07; P = .472). The mycophenolate mofetil subgroup (n = 17) was not contrasted to the mizoribine subgroup (n = 5: 2.85 ± 1.51 vs 2.31 ± 0.26; P = .498).

Conclusion: T II considerably increased the blood concentration and the C/D rate of tacrolimus. The degree of increase was probably not related to the CYP3A5 genotype and the combination of immunosuppressive agents.
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