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Articles by Z. Feng
Total Records ( 3 ) for Z. Feng
  G. P. Leese , Z. Feng , R. M. Leese , C. Dibben and A. Emslie-Smith
 

Aims

To determine whether geography and/or social deprivation influences the occurrence of foot ulcers or amputations in patients with diabetes.

Methods

A population-based cohort of people with diabetes (n = 15 983) were identified between 2004 and 2006. Community and hospital data on diabetes care, podiatry care and onset of ulceration and amputation was linked using a unique patient identifier, which is used for all patient contacts with health-care professionals. Postcode was used to calculate social deprivation and distances to general practice and hospital care.

Results

Over 3 years' follow-up 670 patients with diabetes developed new foot ulcers (42 per 1000) and 99 proceeded to amputation (6 per 1000). The most deprived quintile had a 1.7-fold (95% CI 1.2-2.3) increased risk of developing a foot ulcer. Distance from general practitioner or hospital clinic and lack of attendance at community retinal screening did not predict foot ulceration or amputation. Previous ulcer (OR 15.1, 95% CI 11.6-19.6), insulin use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), absent foot pulses (5.9: 4.7-7.5) and impaired monofilament sensation (OR 6.5, 95% CI 5.0-8.4) all predicted foot ulceration. Previous foot ulcer, absent pulses and impaired monofilaments also predicted amputation.

Conclusion

Social deprivation is an important factor, especially for the development of foot ulcers. Geographical aspects such as accessibility to the general practitioner or hospital clinic are not associated with foot ulceration or amputation in this large UK cohort study.

  C. Ju , B. Xu , Y. Lu , X.J. Mo , T. Zhang , S.B Chen , F. Liu , S.J. Cui , W. Liu , J.H. Chen , Z. Feng , J.X. Peng and W. Hu
  Schistosomiasis ranks as the second most serious parasitic disease worldwide after malaria. More than 250 million people are infected with schistosomes in the tropics or subtropics. The treatment and control of schistosomiasis which is a major neglected tropical parasitic disease, depends almost exclusively on chemotherapy with Praziquantel (PZQ). Current serologic diagnostic assays have shown that schistosome specific antibodies in human serum may remain for at least 1 year after cure. Repeated administration of PZQ for a long time might induce drug resistance to the parasite which is a big challenge for strategizing for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. As schistosome eggs represent the most pathogenic form causing the disease, it is essential to determine if and how the level of antibodies against schistosome Soluble Egg Antigens (SEA) is affected by PZQ treatment. In this study, researchers carried out an immunomic analysis to profile Schistosoma japonicum SEA reacting with pooled human serum samples of pre and post treatment with PZQ by two dimensional electrophoresis combined with Western blotting. A total of 67 protein spots that were serologically recognized by serum samples were successfully subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. Of them, 37 different characterized proteins were successfully identified. Furthermore, of 67 protein spots, the reactivity of 49 protein spots to sera was reduced 20 weeks after PZQ treatment whereas only 5 spots showed increases in the intensity of recognition by post treatment sera. The present study suggested that chemotherapy with PZQ mainly affects the intensity of serological recognition of S. japonicum SEA. The immunomic proteins that were identified may facilitate a better understanding of the egg induced pathogenesis of schistosomiasis and host-parasite interplay and may provide potential targets for the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment for the disease as well.
  C. M. Exline , Z. Feng and C. M. Stoltzfus
  Over 40 different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNAs are produced by alternative splicing of the primary HIV-1 RNA transcripts. In addition, approximately half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is used as genomic RNA and as mRNA for the Gag and Pol gene products. Regulation of splicing at the HIV-1 3` splice sites (3`ss) requires suboptimal polypyrimidine tracts, and positive or negative regulation occurs through the binding of cellular factors to cis-acting splicing regulatory elements. We have previously shown that splicing at HIV-1 3`ss A1, which produces single-spliced vif mRNA and promotes the inclusion of HIV exon 2 into both completely and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs, is increased by optimizing the 5` splice site (5`ss) downstream of exon 2 (5`ss D2). Here we show that the mutations within 5`ss D2 that are predicted to lower or increase the affinity of the 5`ss for U1 snRNP result in reduced or increased Vif expression, respectively. Splicing at 5`ss D2 was not necessary for the effect of 5`ss D2 on Vif expression. In addition, we have found that mutations of the GGGG motif proximal to the 5`ss D2 increase exon 2 inclusion and Vif expression. Finally, we report the presence of a novel exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) element within the 5`-proximal region of exon 2 that facilitates both exon inclusion and Vif expression. This ESE binds specifically to the cellular SR protein SRp75. Our results suggest that the 5`ss D2, the proximal GGGG silencer, and the ESE act competitively to determine the level of vif mRNA splicing and Vif expression. We propose that these positive and negative splicing elements act together to allow the accumulation of vif mRNA and unspliced HIV-1 mRNA, compatible with optimal virus replication.
 
 
 
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