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Articles by Z. C. Pang
Total Records ( 3 ) for Z. C. Pang
  F. Ning , Z. C. Pang , Y. H. Dong , W. G. Gao , H. R. Nan , S. J. Wang , L. Zhang , J. Ren , J. Tuomilehto , N. Hammar , K. Malmberg , S. W. Andersson and Q. Qiao
  Objective  To investigate the major risk factors and their association with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 2001-2002 to 2006 in Qingdao, China.

Methods  Population-based cross-sectional studies on diabetes were performed in 4598 men and 7026 women aged 35-74 years. The 2006 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for diabetes were used.

Results  The crude prevalence of diabetes was 11.3% in both men and women in urban areas and 5.3% and 8.9% in rural areas in 2001-2002. This increased to 19.2% and 16.1% in urban areas and 14.2% and 13.8% in rural areas in 2006 for men and women, respectively. The increase in diabetes prevalence from 2001-2002 to 2006 was paralleled by an increased body mass index in rural areas but not in urban areas. The major risk factors associated with diabetes were age, family history of diabetes, obesity, hypertension and high triglycerides. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for diabetes corresponding to a one standard deviation increase in waist circumference was 1.81 (1.47, 2.23) in urban men, 1.64 (1.26, 2.13) in rural men, 1.98 (1.66, 2.37) in urban women and 2.02 (1.63, 2.51) in rural women. Low socio-economic classes had a higher risk for diabetes in urban areas but a lower risk in rural areas, both associated with increased waist circumference.

Conclusion  Established risk factors are of great importance for the prevalence of diabetes in the urban and rural Chinese populations and changes in these factors could explain the recent dramatic increase in diabetes prevalence, particularly in rural areas. Considering the high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, intervention is urgently required in China.

  W. G. Gao , Y. H. Dong , Z. C. Pang , H. R. Nan , S. J. Wang , J. Ren , L. Zhang , J. Tuomilehto and Q. Qiao
  Aims  A diabetes risk score for screening undiagnosed diabetes was constructed and validated in Chinese adults.

Methods  Two consecutive population-based diabetes surveys among Chinese adults aged 20-74 years were conducted in 2002 (n = 1986) and 2006 (n = 4336). Demographic and anthropometric measures were collected following similar procedures. Standard 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed to diagnose diabetes in both surveys. Fasting capillary plasma glucose (FCG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were also measured together with the OGTTs on the same day of the 2006 survey. Beta coefficients estimated using logistic regression analysis derived from data of the 2002 survey were used to develop the risk assessment algorithm. The performance of the algorithm was validated in the study population of the 2006 survey.

Results  Of all the variables tested, waist circumference, age and family history of diabetes were significant predictors of diabetes and were used to construct the risk assessment score. The score, ranging from 3 to 32, performed well when applied to the study population of the 2006 survey. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 67.3% (95% CI, 64.9-69.7%) for the score, while it was 76.3% (73.5-79.0%) for FCG alone and 67.8% (64.9-70.8%) for HbA1c alone. At a cut-off point of 14, the sensitivity and specificity of the risk score were 84.2% (81.0-87.5%) and 39.8% (38.2-41.3%).

Conclusions  The risk score based on age, waist circumference and family history of diabetes is efficient as a layperson-oriented diabetes screening tool for health promotion and for population-based screening programmes.

  L. Y. Qie , J. P. Sun , F. Ning , Z. C. Pang , W. G. Gao , J. Ren , H. R. Nan , L. Zhang and Q. Qiao


To study the cardiovascular disease risk profiles in newly diagnosed diabetes diagnosed by either glucose or/and HbA1c criteria in Chinese adults.


Two population-based cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2006 and 2009, respectively. Data from 1987 men and 2815 women aged 35-74 years were analysed. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined according to either glucose (fasting and/or 2-h glucose), HbA1c or both criteria.


Ageing, positive family history of diabetes, elevated levels of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides and γ-glutamyl transferase were independently associated with newly diagnosed diabetes defined by glucose criterion alone, but not for diabetes defined by HbA1c criterion alone. Only waist circumference, total cholesterol and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of diabetes defined by HbA1c criterion alone.


Cardiovascular disease risk profiles were different in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes defined by the two diagnostic criteria for diabetes. This may have certain clinical implications on diabetes management and research.

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