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Articles by Z. Ahmad
Total Records ( 7 ) for Z. Ahmad
  S. Agarwal and Z. Ahmad
  The present study was undertaken on the interactive effect of Rhizobium seed culture treatment and saline irrigation on the plant growth and productivity (fodder/biological yield) in two cultivars (WARDAN and BB 2) of berseem. The experiment was conducted following completely randomized block design method considering three replicates and data were subjected to statistical analysis of variance using three factorial randomized design method. Two sets of plots were maintained in which one set contained non-inoculated while another set contained inoculated seeds with Rhizobium culture, which were irrigated with saline waters of different electrical conductivities (0, 3, 6, 7.2, 10, 12 and 14 dS m-1). The observations were recorded at two durations i.e., 90 and 120 DAS. The plant growth has been enhanced at lower levels of salinity (3 to 7.2 dS m-1) and invariably inhibited at 10 dS m-1 and beyond. Inoculation with Rhizobium culture had expressed synergistic effects on growth and productivity at both durations particularly at lower EC levels and also minimized the deleterious effect of salinity at 10 to 14 dS m-1 to some extent. The yield characteristics (biological and fodder yield) had been differentially affected in berseem. Cv. WARDAN had registered maximum yield at the final harvest in Rhizobium inoculated sets at 3, 6 and 7.2 dS m-1. Similar findings were recorded for total green and dry weight fodder yield/plot (kg m-2). Our findings proves that cv. WARDAN might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass.
  Z. Ahmad , F. Azam , T. Mahmood , M. Arshad and S. Nadeem
  A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate the effect of calcium carbide (as a source of ethylene) on some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Inqalab-91) that was grown without or with two levels of N, P and K fertilizers (120-90-60 kg ha-1 and 60-45-30 kg ha-1). Half dose of N and full dose of P and K was applied at sowing while remaining half after one week of germination. Calcium carbide as a source of ethylene was applied at 60 kg ha-1 after 2 and 8 weeks of germination. A factorial completely randomized design was followed with nine treatments each with three replicates. Data regarding plant height, number of tillers, length of spike, number of spikelets spike-1 and grain yield was recorded. Plant height, number of tillers and spike length were significantly affected when CaC2 was applied after one week of germination while number of spikelets and grain yield was maximum when CaC2 was applied after 8 weeks of germination.
  D. Muhammad , Z. Ahmad and N. Aziz
  The dynamic and nonlinearity of the distillation column often become major constrain in selecting an appropriate control system in achieving the desired product purity. The aim of this research is to study the level of nonlinearity of the industrial i-Butane/n-Butane distillation column in order to propose a suitable controller. This will serve as a preliminary study in order to develop a robust controller for the column based on its degree of nonlinearity. In this study, the steady state model of the column is developed using commercial process simulator, Aspen Plus software and then validated with the industrial data available in the literature. Then, the model is exported to Aspen Dynamic and linked with Matlab Simulink for the dynamic study purpose. The nonlinearity analysis i.e. asymmetric response, harmonic response, input multiplicity and output multiplicity is done in order to study the nonlinearity level of the column. Based from the study, the industrial column under consideration can be categorized as a strong nonlinearity system and the development of a nonlinear controller is needed for the column.
  Lee Qiao Hui , Liew Weng Hui , N. Aziz and Z. Ahmad
  The identification of intrinsic characteristics on distillation column via dynamic modeling has been becoming indispensable in order to fulfill the increasingly stringent product quality and system regulations. Therefore, the aim of the study is to capture the complex dynamics and static interactions of input output using FANN in Shell heavy oil fractionators. With the case study on “Shell” heavy oil fractionator, artificial intelligence is employed to model the 7 operational outputs, where 3 of those are controlled outputs, named as top end point composition, side end point composition and bottoms reflux temperature. The training, testing and validation data for the single layer neural network are generated through the simulation with the presence of disturbances, process gain uncertainties, measurement of noise and step time variations. With Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and early stopping method oriented network training, parameter iteration method is proposed and applied to iterate over 4 parameters where the representative pairing to generate optimum network prediction accuracy is selected. Based on sum squared error, residual error and correlation coefficient analysis, the network performance on the case of perfect case, high noise-influencing system, Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) and highly uncertain system is greatly satisfying in terms of prediction accuracy and network robustness. The result shows that the neural network will always customize itself in nonlinear system and shows its ability in understanding the complex system dynamics with great learning efficiency.
  H.F. Al-Kahem-Al-Balawi , K.A. Al-Ghanim , Z. Ahmad , T.A. Temraz , A.S. Al-Akel , F. Al-Misned and H. Annazri
  The present study showed that the population density of a native fish (A. dispar) in the freshwater environments of Saudi Arabia is declining. It is concluded from the present investigations that A. dispar is not threatened by a single isolated factor, but instead faces numerous stressors that jeopardize multiple stages of their life cycle. Reduced availability of food, habitat degradation, chemical contamination, introduction of exotic species and exploitation have contributed to the decline of such native fish`s abundance. Protecting fishes will help to protect aquatic biodiversity and in conservation of biological heritage of the country.
  M.R. Attique , M.M. Ahmad and Z. Ahmad
  Five trap designs yellow and white funnel, Delta red and white and universal were evaluated for their catching efficiency. Yellow funnel was most efficient for catching male moths followed by white funnel and then Deltas red and white. Universal trap was most inefficient. In the field where no plant protection was given against bollworms and mass trapping was done, pink bollworm infestation in the bolls was much less as compared with untreated check (control). In area where insecticides were compared with mass trapping, reduction in pesticide use was 33 percent. Infestation in the bolls was much less than where farmer used insecticides. Pink bollworm control with PB Rope, small and large tea bags by using mating disruption technique was better than that of plots where farmer used insecticides. Maximum pink bollworm attack was 22 percent in the insecticide treated area as compared with 6% in the pheromone treated block.
  A. Ghafoor , M.A. Zahid , Z. Ahmad , M. Afzal and M. Zubair
  Three hundred and ten mungbean lines were evaluated in the field for 9 quantitative traits at NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan (33.40 o N and 73.07o E). These showed high variance for yield contributing characters except pod length, seeds/pod and seed weight. Germplasm under investigation displayed a wide range of diversity for most of the traits. Pure-lines with unique characters which could help to identify, select and hybridize land races to induce evolution for important traits were identified and for that matter 44 pure-lines were selected and recommended for testing under wide range of agro-ecological condition in pursuit of best mungbean cultivars. Data on harvest index revealed that the genotypes from 25 to 40% harvest index exhibited better performance and thus this range is suggested as one of the criteria for future improvement in mungbean.
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