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Articles by Z Xu
Total Records ( 7 ) for Z Xu
  K Yin , X Han , Z Xu and H. Xue
 

Hormones are critical for cell differentiation, elongation, and division. The plant hormone auxin plays vital roles in plant growth and development and is essential for various physiologic processes. Previous studies showed that germin-like proteins (GLPs) are involved in multiple physiologic and developmental processes and that several GLP members could bind different auxin molecules. Here we showed that Arabidopsis thaliana GLP4 gene, which has a length of 660 bp and encodes a 219-aa polypeptide, contains the conserved auxin-binding region box A and binds indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with low affinity, but not -naphthaleneacetic acid, in vitro, by using assays equilibrium dialysis and nuclear magnetic resonance. This binding character is different from that of auxin-binding protein 1, which does not bind 2,4-D. GLP4 is highly transcribed in various tissues, but it shows low transcription in roots and during embryo development. In addition, transcription of GLP4 is stimulated by auxin treatment. Subcellular localization studies indicated that GLP4 protein is localized in the Golgi compartment and the N-terminus of GLP4 is crucial for its proper localization, which suggests that GLP4 may be involved in Golgi-dependent developmental processes.

  X Zhang , H Huang , Z Xu and R. Zhan
 

2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) is an endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol (E2) with estrogen receptor-independent anti-cancer activity. The current study sought to determine the mechanism of anti-cancer activity of 2-ME2 in human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells. Results showed that 2-ME2 markedly suppressed proliferation of CEM cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 2-ME2-treated CEM cells underwent typical apoptotic changes. Exposure to 2-ME2 led to G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest, which preceded apoptosis characterized by the appearance of a sub-G1 cell population. In addition, cytosolic cytochrome c release, increased procaspase-9 and -3 expressions, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and induced expression of caspase-8 were detected, suggesting that both the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and extrinsic apoptotic pathway were involved in 2-ME2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the expression level of p21 protein was upregulated, whereas Bcl-2 and dysfunctional p53 protein were downregulated, which also contributed to 2-ME2-induced apoptosis. Our findings revealed that 2-ME2 might be a potent natural candidate for chemotherapeutic treatment of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia when the precise effects of 2-ME2 were investigated further in other T leukemia cell lines and in primary T-cell leukemias.

  X Pan , N Gong , J Zhao , Z Yu , F Gu , J Chen , X Sun , L Zhao , M Yu , Z Xu , W Dong , Y Qin , G Fei , C Zhong and T. L. Xu
 

Reduction of glucose metabolism in brain is one of the main features of Alzheimer’s disease. Thiamine (vitamin B1)-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and have been found to be impaired in brains from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, thiamine treatment exerts little beneficial effect in these patients. Here, we tested the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative with better bioavailability than thiamine, on cognitive impairment and pathology alterations in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mouse. We show that after a chronic 8 week treatment, benfotiamine dose-dependently enhanced the spatial memory of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 mice in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, benfotiamine effectively reduced both amyloid plaque numbers and phosphorylated tau levels in cortical areas of the transgenic mice brains. Unexpectedly, these effects were not mimicked by another lipophilic thiamine derivative, fursultiamine, although both benfotiamine and fursultiamine were effective in increasing the levels of free thiamine in the brain. Most notably, benfotiamine, but not fursultiamine, significantly elevated the phosphorylation level of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and -3β, and reduced their enzymatic activities in the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic brain. Therefore, in the animal Alzheimer’s disease model, benfotiamine appears to improve the cognitive function and reduce amyloid deposition via thiamine-independent mechanisms, which are likely to include the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities. These results suggest that, unlike many other thiamine-related drugs, benfotiamine may be beneficial for clinical Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

  J Huang , Z Xu , D Wang , C. M Ogata , K Palczewski , X Lee and N. M. Young
 

The Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) recognizes the T-antigen disaccharide Galβ1,3GalNAc mainly through interaction of the -GalNAc moiety with its primary site, but the interactions of the two flanking subsites A and B with aglycones and substituents other than Gal, respectively, are not well understood. We therefore characterized the specificity of MPA in more detail by glycan microarray analysis and determined the crystal structures of MPA without ligand and in complexes with Galβ1,3GalNAc and p-nitrophenyl -GalNAc. In both sugar complexes, pairs of ligands created inter-tetramer hydrogen-bond bridging networks. While subsite A showed increased affinity for hydrophobic aglycones, it also accommodated several sugar substituents. Notably, a GalNAc-O-tripeptide, a Tn-antigen mimic, showed lower affinity than these compounds in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. The glycan array data that showed subsite B accepted compounds in which the O3 position of the GalNAc was substituted with various sugars other than Gal, but substitutions at O6 led to inactivity. Additions to the Gal moiety of the disaccharide also had only small effects on reactivity. These results are all compatible with the features seen in the crystal structures.

  P Gao , K Liu , L Liu , Z Wang , Z Liao , Z Xu , W Wang , X Bai , E Wang and Y. Li
 

The higher-order harmonic resonances, including second and third harmonic modes, were induced by applying alternative current signals inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), which have been used to study the mechanical properties of individual cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanowires. Young's moduli (E) and mechanical quality factors (Q) of individual CdS nanowires with diameters in the range of 50–350 nm were measured with the assistance of the mechanical resonances. The results indicate that the smooth nanowires have larger E and Q in comparison with the rough nanowires, and for the rough nanowires, E and Q increase with increasing diameters. The morphology- and size-dependent mechanical properties of CdS nanowires are directly correlated with their structure, as imaged by in situ TEM.

  Z Xu , Q Gong , B Xia , B Groves , M Zimmermann , C Mugler , D Mu , B Matsumoto , M Seaman and D. Ma
 

Histone lysine methyltransferase complexes are essential for chromatin organization and gene regulation. Whether any of this machinery functions in membrane traffic is unknown. In this study, we report that mammal Dpy-30 (mDpy-30), a subunit of several histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase (H3K4MT) complexes, resides in the nucleus and at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The TGN targeting of mDpy-30 is mediated by BIG1, a TGN-localized guanine nucleotide exchange factor for adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor GTPases. Altering mDpy-30 levels changes the distribution of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR) without affecting that of TGN46 or transferrin receptor. Our experiments also indicate that mDpy-30 functions in the endosome to TGN transport of CIMPR and that its knockdown results in the enrichment of internalized CIMPR and recycling endosomes near cell protrusions. Much like mDpy-30 depletion, the knockdown of Ash2L or RbBP5, two other H3K4MT subunits, leads to a similar redistribution of CIMPR. Collectively, these results suggest that mDpy-30 and probably H3K4MT play a role in the endosomal transport of specific cargo proteins.

  Z Xu , H Ogawa , P Vagnarelli , J. H Bergmann , D. F Hudson , S Ruchaud , T Fukagawa , W. C Earnshaw and K. Samejima
 

INCENP fine tunes the level of aurora B kinase activity, which in turn correlates with different functional states of the chromosome passenger complex.

 
 
 
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