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Articles by Z Tian
Total Records ( 4 ) for Z Tian
  A Qian , S Di , X Gao , W Zhang , Z Tian , J Li , L Hu , P Yang , D Yin and P. Shang

The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has been widely applied in many fields. In this study, a special designed superconducting magnet, which can produce three apparent gravity levels (0, 1, and 2 g), namely high magneto-gravitational environment (HMGE), was used to simulate space gravity environment. The effects of HMGE on osteoblast gene expression profile were investigated by microarray. Genes sensitive to diamagnetic levitation environment (0 g), gravity changes, and high magnetic field changes were sorted on the basis of typical cell functions. Cytoskeleton, as an intracellular load-bearing structure, plays an important role in gravity perception. Therefore, 13 cytoskeleton-related genes were chosen according to the results of microarray analysis, and the expressions of these genes were found to be altered under HMGE by real-time PCR. Based on the PCR results, the expressions of WASF2 (WAS protein family, member 2), WIPF1 (WAS/WASL interacting protein family, member 1), paxillin, and talin 1 were further identified by western blot assay. Results indicated that WASF2 and WIPF1 were more sensitive to altered gravity levels, and talin 1 and paxillin were sensitive to both magnetic field and gravity changes. Our findings demonstrated that HMGE can affect osteoblast gene expression profile and cytoskeleton-related genes expression. The identification of mechanosensitive genes may enhance our understandings to the mechanism of bone loss induced by microgravity and may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis.

  Z Tian , T Ye , X Zhang , E Liu , W Wang , P Wang , G Liu , X Yang , G Hu and Z. Yu

Objective  To investigate the association between sleep duration and risk of hyperglycemia among preschool Chinese children.

Design  A population-based cross-sectional study.

Setting  Seventy-one randomly selected kindergartens in Tianjin, China.

Participants  Six hundred nineteen obese (body mass index z score ≥1.65) and 617 nonobese (body mass index z score <1.65) children aged 3 to 6 years were recruited and matched by age.

Main Exposure  Sleep duration.

Main Outcome Measures  Hyperglycemia, defined as a fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or higher.

Results  Obese children were more likely to have shorter sleep duration (≤8 hours) compared with their nonobese counterparts (P < .001). Compared with those who slept for 9 or 10 hours per night, those who slept for 8 hours or less had a significantly higher likelihood of having hyperglycemia, controlling for age and sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.45). After further adjustment for other potential confounders, the association still remained statistically significant (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.09-2.46). In the stratified multivariable analyses, those who were obese and slept for 8 hours or less had an increased risk of having hyperglycemia (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.06-4.21) compared with those who were nonobese and slept for 9 hours or more.

Conclusions  Shorter sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of having hyperglycemia among preschool Chinese children. Whether adequate sleep may help maintain euglycemia among children, especially for those who are overweight or obese, warrants further investigation.

  A Szwast , Z Tian , M McCann , D Donaghue and J. Rychik

Background— Cardiopulmonary interactions play an important role in the pathophysiology of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Pulmonary vasculopathy has been identified, especially in those with restrictive/intact atrial septum. Responsiveness of the pulmonary vasculature to maternal hyperoxygenation (MH) may provide a tool to assess the degree of pulmonary vasculopathy present before birth.

Methods and Results— Doppler echocardiography was performed in 27 normal and 43 HLHS fetuses. In HLHS, sampling was repeated after 10 minutes of MH with 60% FiO2 and after 5 minutes of recovery. Sampling was performed in the proximal, midportion, and distal branch pulmonary artery (PA). Pulsatility index (PI) was used as a measure of vascular impedance. Of the HLHS fetuses, 34 had an open interatrial septum and 9 had a restrictive/intact atrial septum. At birth, 5 fetuses underwent immediate intervention on the interatrial septum. Middle cerebral artery PI was lower in HLHS versus normal fetuses (P<0.001). There was no difference in UA, DA, or branch PA PI between normal fetuses and those with HLHS. MH led to a significant decrease in PI at each of the PA sites sampled in fetuses with an open atrial septum (P<0.001); however, there no was significant change in the PI in fetuses that required immediate intervention on the atrial septum at birth. Using a cutoff value of <10% vasoreactivity, the sensitivity of MH testing for determining need for immediate intervention at birth is 100% (0.46 to 1.0); specificity, 94% (0.78 to 0.99); positive predictive value, 71% (0.30 to 0.95); and negative predictive value, 100% (0.86 to 1.0). No untoward effects were seen with MH.

Conclusions— PA vasoreactivity to MH occurs in the fetus with HLHS. MH testing accurately identifies fetuses requiring urgent postnatal intervention at birth and may be used to select candidates for fetal atrial septoplasty.

  Z Tian , C Rizzon , J Du , L Zhu , J. L Bennetzen , S. A Jackson , B. S Gaut and J. Ma

In flowering plants, the accumulation of small deletions through unequal homologous recombination (UR) and illegitimate recombination (IR) is proposed to be the major process counteracting genome expansion, which is caused primarily by the periodic amplification of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs). However, the full suite of evolutionary forces that govern the gain or loss of transposable elements (TEs) and their distribution within a genome remains unclear. Here, we investigated the distribution and structural variation of LTR-RTs in relation to the rates of local genetic recombination (GR) and gene densities in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Our data revealed a positive correlation between GR rates and gene densities and negative correlations between LTR-RT densities and both GR and gene densities. The data also indicate a tendency for LTR-RT elements and fragments to be shorter in regions with higher GR rates; the size reduction of LTR-RTs appears to be achieved primarily through solo LTR formation by UR. Comparison of indica and japonica rice revealed patterns and frequencies of LTR-RT gain and loss within different evolutionary timeframes. Different LTR-RT families exhibited variable distribution patterns and structural changes, but overall LTR-RT compositions and genes were organized according to the GR gradients of the genome. Further investigation of non-LTR-RTs and DNA transposons revealed a negative correlation between gene densities and the abundance of DNA transposons and a weak correlation between GR rates and the abundance of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs)/short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Together, these observations suggest that GR and gene density play important roles in shaping the dynamic structure of the rice genome.

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