Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by Z Pausova
Total Records ( 2 ) for Z Pausova
  S Lotfipour , E Ferguson , G Leonard , M Perron , B Pike , L Richer , J. R Seguin , R Toro , S Veillette , Z Pausova and T. Paus
 

Context  Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) may affect brain development and behavior in adolescent offspring.

Objective  To evaluate the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mediating the relationship between PEMCS and substance use.

Design  Cross-sectional analyses from the Saguenay Youth Study aimed at evaluating the effects of PEMCS on brain development and behavior among adolescents. Nonexposed adolescents were matched with adolescents exposed prenatally to cigarette smoking by maternal educational level.

Participants and Setting  A French Canadian founder population of the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada.

The behavioral data set included 597 adolescents (275 sibships; 12-18 years of age), half of whom were exposed in utero to maternal cigarette smoking. Analysis of cortical thickness and genotyping were performed using available data from 314 adolescents.

Main Outcome Measures  The likelihood of substance use was assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. The number of different drugs tried by each adolescent was assessed using another questionnaire. Thickness of the OFC was estimated from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using FreeSurfer software.

Results  Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of substance use. Among exposed adolescents, the likelihood of drug experimentation correlates with the degree of OFC thinning. In nonexposed adolescents, the thickness of the OFC increases as a function of the number of drugs tried. The latter effect is moderated by a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype (Val66Met).

Conclusions  We speculate that PEMCS interferes with the development of the OFC and, in turn, increases the likelihood of drug use among adolescents. In contrast, we suggest that, among nonexposed adolescents, drug experimentation influences the OFC thickness via processes akin to experience-induced plasticity.

  Z Pausova , C Syme , M Abrahamowicz , Y Xiao , G. T Leonard , M Perron , L Richer , S Veillette , G. D Smith , O Seda , J Tremblay , P Hamet , D Gaudet and T. Paus
 

Background— FTO is the first gene established as contributing to common forms of obesity. The gene is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and is thought to mediate this effect through its influence on energy homeostasis. The hypothalamus, however, also regulates blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we investigated whether the FTO-risk variant is associated not only with increased adiposity but also with elevated BP and whether the latter may be mediated, in part, by increased sympathetic modulation of vasomotor tone.

Methods and Results— The primary study was carried out in 485 adolescents recruited from a French Canadian founder population who underwent detailed body-composition and cardiovascular phenotyping. Body fat was examined with MRI, bioimpedance, and anthropometry. BP was recorded beat to beat at rest and during physical and mental challenges. Sympathetic modulation of vasomotor tone was assessed with power spectral analysis of BP. We found that individuals with the FTO-risk genotype compared with those without it demonstrate greater adiposity, including the amount of intra-abdominal fat (by 38%). They also showed higher systolic BP throughout the entire protocol, with a maximum difference during a mental stress (6.4 [1.5 to 11.3] mm Hg). The difference in BP was accompanied by elevated index of sympathetic modulation of vasomotor tone. A replication in an independent sample of adults from the same founder population confirmed the association between FTO and BP.

Conclusions— These results suggest that, in a French Canadian founder population, FTO may increase not only risk for obesity, as demonstrated in other populations, but also for hypertension. The latter may be related, at least in part, to the regulation of sympathetic vasomotor tone.

 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility