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Articles by Z Lu
Total Records ( 7 ) for Z Lu
  Z Lu , P Xie and Z. Qin

The standard gene disruption and replacement to delete the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster (Act) in Streptomyces coelicolor was inefficient, and the polymerase chain reaction-targeting of the cosmid could efficiently delete the Act, but still was a time-consuming procedure for markerless gene replacement. By using optimal Streptomyces codons, we synthesized a sceS gene encoding identical amino acid sequence as the chromosome rare-cutting meganuclease I-sce I of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. Expression of sceS gene in S. coelicolor resulted in promotion of homologous recombination and subsequently, successful achieved markerless deletion of the Act. The sceS system may be useful for the sequential markerless deletions of chromosomal segments in Streptomyces.

  Z Lu , Y. P Jiang , W Wang , X. H Xu , R. T Mathias , E Entcheva , L. M Ballou , I. S Cohen and R. Z. Lin

Background— Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110 plays a key role in insulin action and tumorigenesis. Myocyte contraction is initiated by an inward Ca2+ current (ICa,L) through the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether p110 also controls cardiac contractility by regulating the LTCC.

Methods and Results— Genetic ablation of p110 (also known as Pik3ca), but not p110β (also known as Pik3cb), in cardiac myocytes of adult mice reduced ICa,L and blocked insulin signaling in the heart. p110-null myocytes had a reduced number of LTCCs on the cell surface and a contractile defect that decreased cardiac function in vivo. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of p110 decreased ICa,L and contractility in canine myocytes. Inhibition of p110β did not reduce ICa,L.

Conclusions— PI3K p110 but not p110β regulates the LTCC in cardiac myocytes. Decreased signaling to p110 reduces the number of LTCCs on the cell surface and thus attenuates ICa,L and contractility.

  Z Lu , I Scott , B. R Webster and M. N. Sack

Abstract: There is emerging recognition of a novel fuel and redox sensing regulatory program that controls cellular adaptation via nonhistone protein lysine residue acetyl posttranslation modifications. This program functions in tissues with high energy demand and oxidative capacity and is highly enriched in the heart. Deacetylation is regulated by NAD+-dependent activation of the sirtuin family of proteins, whereas acetyltransferase modifications are controlled by less clearly delineated acetyltransferases. Subcellular localization specific protein targets of lysine-acetyl modification have been identified in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Despite distinct subcellular localizations, these modifications appear, in large part, to modify mitochondrial properties including respiration, energy production, apoptosis, and antioxidant defenses. These mitochondrial regulatory programs are important in cardiovascular biology, although how protein acetyl modifications effects cardiovascular pathophysiology has not been extensively explored. This review will introduce the role of nonhistone protein lysine residue acetyl modifications, discuss their regulation and biochemistry and present the direct and indirect data implicating their involvement in the heart and vasculature.

  H Ding , B Wu , H Wang , Z Lu , J Yan , X Wang , J. R Shaffer , R Hui and D. W. Wang

Rationale: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous arginine analogue, inhibits nitric oxide synthases and plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction.

Objective: In the present study, we tested whether a novel genetic variant in dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1), an important ADMA hydrolyzing gene, was associated with stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

Methods and Results: By resequencing, we identified a novel 4-nucleotide deletion/insertion variant in the DDAH1 promoter. The insertion allele disrupted binding of metal-regulatory transcription factor 1, which resulted in significant reduction of in vitro DDAH1 transcriptional activity and in vivo DDAH1 mRNA level, and in turn, increased plasma ADMA level and the ratio of ADMA to l-arginine. We initially genotyped the polymorphism in 1388 stroke patients and 1027 controls as well as 576 CHD patients and 557 controls and then replicated our study in additional independent case-control cohorts comprising 961 stroke patients and 822 controls and 482 CHD patients and 1072 controls. We identified that the –396 4N ins allele was significantly associated with increased risk of thrombosis stroke and CHD after adjusting for environmental factors in both samples for both diseases (thrombosis stroke discovery set: odds ratio [OR]=1.35, P=0.032; replication set: OR=1.51, P=0.006; CHD discovery set: OR=1.45, P=0.035; replication set: OR=1.47, P=0.003).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the DDAH1 loss-of-function polymorphism is associated with both increased risk of thrombosis stroke and CHD.

  G Niu , B. J Scherlag , Z Lu , M Ghias , Y Zhang , E Patterson , T. W Dasari , S Zacharias , R Lazzara , W. M Jackman and S. S. Po

Background— The objective of this study was to develop an acute experimental model showing both focal and macroreentrant sustained atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods and Results— In 31 anesthetized dogs, bilateral thoracotomies allowed the attachment of electrode catheters at the right and left superior pulmonary veins, atrial free walls, and atrial appendages. Acetylcholine, 100 mmol/L, was applied topically to either appendage. Sequential radiofrequency ablation was achieved for the ganglionated plexi (GP), found adjacent to the 4 pulmonary veins. In 12 separate studies, a propafenone bolus, 2 mg/kg, was given before and after GP ablations at the start of acetylcholine-induced AF.

Acetylcholine caused abrupt onset of AF (n=22) or induced AF by burst pacing (n=9) that lasted ≥10 minutes. Rapid, regular, or fractionated atrial electrograms were consistently seen (average cycle length, 37±7 ms) at the appendages versus cycle lengths of 114±23 ms at other atrial sites. After ablations of GP, AF abruptly terminated (n=25). In 6 dogs, sustained atrial tachyarrhythmias continued. Pacing at specific atrial sites organized electrograms of one atrium or also captured the other atrium. The latter resulted in termination when pacing was stopped in 4 of these 6 experiments. Propafenone did not change the duration of focal AF before GP ablation (17±9 versus 14±8 minutes; control, P=0.6) but terminated reentrant atrial tachyarrhythmias (12±3 versus 2±1 minutes, P=0.0009).

Conclusions— Before GP ablation, acetylcholine (100 mmol/L) induced sustained AF characterized by rapid, focal firing. GP ablations were associated with loss of focal firing and regularization of electrograms in both atria before termination. Propafenone failed to terminate focal AF but rapidly terminated entrainable macroreentrant atrial tachyarrhythmias.

  G Zhang , G Guo , X Hu , Y Zhang , Q Li , R Li , R Zhuang , Z Lu , Z He , X Fang , L Chen , W Tian , Y Tao , K Kristiansen , X Zhang , S Li , H Yang , J Wang and J. Wang

Understanding the dynamics of eukaryotic transcriptome is essential for studying the complexity of transcriptional regulation and its impact on phenotype. However, comprehensive studies of transcriptomes at single base resolution are rare, even for modern organisms, and lacking for rice. Here, we present the first transcriptome atlas for eight organs of cultivated rice. Using high-throughput paired-end RNA-seq, we unambiguously detected transcripts expressing at an extremely low level, as well as a substantial number of novel transcripts, exons, and untranslated regions. An analysis of alternative splicing in the rice transcriptome revealed that alternative cis-splicing occurred in ~33% of all rice genes. This is far more than previously reported. In addition, we also identified 234 putative chimeric transcripts that seem to be produced by trans-splicing, indicating that transcript fusion events are more common than expected. In-depth analysis revealed a multitude of fusion transcripts that might be by-products of alternative splicing. Validation and chimeric transcript structural analysis provided evidence that some of these transcripts are likely to be functional in the cell. Taken together, our data provide extensive evidence that transcriptional regulation in rice is vastly more complex than previously believed.

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