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Articles by Z Han
Total Records ( 4 ) for Z Han
  D. L Price , S. F Lin , Z Han , G Simpson , R. S Coffin , J Wong , S Li , Y Fong and R. J. Wong
 

Objective  To determine if prodrug conversion of fluorocytosine to fluorouracil by an engineered herpes virus, OncoVEXGALV/CD, enhances oncolytic therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Design  We assessed the ability of OncoVEXGALV/CD and OncoVEXGFP to infect, replicate within, and lyse 4 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines in vitro. The effects of adding fluorocytosine with OncoVEXGALV/CD were evaluated.

Results  Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was permissive to green fluorescent protein expression in100% of cells by OncoVEXGFP at a multiplicity of infection of 1 after 48 hours and supported logarithmic viral replication. Virus caused more than 60% cell death 6 days after exposure to virus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 in 3 of the 4 cell lines. Fluorocytosine did not enhance cytotoxicity induced by OncoVEXGALV/CD at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. However, for the least-sensitive SCC25 cell line, virus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 was cytotoxic to only 4% of cells after 6 days but was cytotoxic to 35% of cells with fluorocytosine.

Conclusions  OncoVEXGALV/CD efficiently infects, replicates within, and lyses head and neck squamous cell carcinoma at relatively low viral doses. Prodrug conversion by cytosine deaminase did not enhance therapy at viral doses that cause efficient cytotoxicity but may have beneficial effects in less-sensitive cell lines at low viral doses.

  Z Han , Z Hong , C Chen , Q Gao , D Luo , Y Fang , Y Cao , T Zhu , X Jiang , Q Ma , W Li , L Han , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , L Meng , J Zhou and D. Ma
 

Tumor cells acquire the ability to proliferate uncontrollably, resist apoptosis, sustain angiogenesis and evade immune surveillance. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates all of these processes in a surprisingly large number of human cancers. Consequently, the STAT3 protein is emerging as an ideal target for cancer therapy. This paper reports the generation of an oncolytic adenovirus (M4), which selectively blocks STAT3 signaling in tumor cells as a novel therapeutic strategy. M4 selectively replicated in tumor cells and expressed high levels of antisense STAT3 complementary DNA during the late phase of the viral infection in a replication-dependent manner. The viral progeny yield of M4 in tumor cells was much higher than that of the parent adenoviral mutants, Ad5/dE1A. M4 effectively silenced STAT3 and its target genes in tumor cells while sparing normal cells and exhibited potent antitumoral efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of M4 significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic gastric carcinoma mouse model, eliminated abdominal cavity metastases and prolonged survival time. In summary, M4 has low toxicity and great potential as a therapeutic agent for different types of cancers.

  Z Han , N. R Mtango , Z Zhong , R Vassena and K. E. Latham
 

Blastomere cytofragmentation in mammalian embryos poses a significant problem in applied and clinical embryology. Mouse two-cell-stage embryos display strain-dependent differences in the rate of cytofragmentation, with a high rate observed in C3H/HeJ embryos and a lower rate observed in C57BL/6 embryos. The maternally inherited genome exerts the strongest effect on the process, with lesser effects mediated by the paternally inherited genome and the ooplasm. The effect of the maternal genome is transcription dependent and independent of the mitochondrial strain of origin. To identify molecular mechanisms that underlie cytofragmentation, we evaluated transcriptional activities of embryos possessing maternal pronuclei (mPN) of different origins. The mPN from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ strains directed specific transcription at the two-cell stage of mRNAs corresponding to 935 and 864 Affymetrix probe set IDs, respectively. Comparing transcriptomes of two-cell-stage embryos with different mPN revealed 64 transcribed genes with differential expression (1.4-fold or greater). Some of these genes occupy molecular pathways that may regulate cytofragmentation via a combination of effects related to apoptosis and effects on the cytoskeleton. These results implicate specific molecular mechanisms that may regulate cytofragmentation in early mammalian embryos. The most striking effect of mPN strain of origin on gene expression was on adenylate cyclase 2 (Adcy2). Treatment with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) elicits a high rate and severe form of cytofragmentation, and the effective dbcAMP concentration varies with maternal genotype. An activator of exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPACs, or RAPGEF 3 and 4) 8-pCPT-2'-O-methyl-cAMP, elicits a high level of fragmentation while the PKA-specific activator N6-benzoyl-cAMP does not. Inhibition of A kinase anchor protein activities with st-Ht31 induces fragmentation. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling also induces fragmentation. These results reveal novel mechanisms by which maternal genotype affects cytofragmentation, including a system of opposing signaling pathways that most likely operate by controlling cytoskeletal function.

 
 
 
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