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Articles by Z Guo
Total Records ( 4 ) for Z Guo
  W Zhang , B Jiang , Z Guo , C Sardet , B Zou , C. S. C Lam , J Li , M He , H. Y Lan , R Pang , I. F. N Hung , V. P. Y Tan , J Wang and B. C. Y. Wong

Background and Aims: Cancer invasion and metastasis may associate with the phenotype transition called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We aim to evaluate the impact of four-and-a-half LIM protein 2 (FHL2) on EMT and invasion of colon cancer. Methods: The functional role of FHL2 in EMT was determined by overexpression or small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of FHL2. Mechanisms of FHL2 on expression or activity of E-cadherin and β-catenin were assessed. Results: FHL2 was highly expressed in primary and metastatic colon cancer but not in normal tissues. FHL2 was critical for cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, migration and invasion. FHL2 expression was stimulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Moreover, FHL2 acted as a potent EMT inducer by stimulating vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions and causing a loss of E-cadherin, whereas those alterations of EMT markers were not affected by silencing of Smad molecules (typical TGF-β signal mediators) in FHL2 stable transfectant cells. Therefore, FHL2 induced EMT in a TGF-β-dependent and Smad-independent manner. FHL2 downregulated E-cadherin expression and inhibited the formation of membrane-associated E-cadherin–β-catenin complex. FHL2 also stabilized nuclear β-catenin, resulting in enforcement of β-catenin transactivation activity. Conclusion: FHL2 is a potent EMT inducer and might be an important mediator for invasion and/or metastasis of colon cancer.

  A. P Owens , V Subramanian , J. J Moorleghen , Z Guo , C. A McNamara , L. A Cassis and A. Daugherty

Rationale: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has diverse effects on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The diversity of effects may relate to the regional location of this cell type.

Objective: The aim of this study was to define whether Ang II exerted divergent effects on smooth muscle cells in the aorta and determine the role of blood pressure and specific oxidant mechanisms.

Methods and Results: Ang II (1000 ng/kg per minute) infusion for 28 days into mice increased systolic blood pressure and promoted medial expansion of equivalent magnitude throughout the entire aorta. Both effects were ablated by angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a) receptor deficiency. Similar increases in systolic blood pressure by administration of norepinephrine promoted no changes in aortic medial thickness. Increased medial thickness was attributable to SMC expansion owing to hypertrophy in most aortic regions, with the exception of hyperplasia of the ascending aorta. Deficiency of the p47phox component of NADPH oxidase ablated Ang II–induced medial expansion in all aortic regions. Analysis of mRNA and protein throughout the aorta revealed a much higher abundance of the inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) in the ascending aorta compared to all other regions. A functional role was demonstrated by Id3 deficiency inhibiting Ang II–induced SMC hyperplasia of the ascending aorta.

Conclusions: In conclusion, Ang II promotes both aortic medial hypertrophy and hyperplasia in a region-specific manner via an oxidant mechanism. The ascending aortic hyperplasia is dependent on Id3.

  D. J Stewart , J. P Issa , R Kurzrock , M. I Nunez , J Jelinek , D Hong , Y Oki , Z Guo , S Gupta and I. I. Wistuba

Purpose: By hypomethylating genes, decitabine may up-regulate factors required for chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity. Platinum-resistant cells may have reduced expression of the copper/platinum transporter CTR1.

Experimental Design: Thirty-one patients with refractory malignancies received decitabine 2.5 to 10 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5, and 8 to 12 or 15 to 20 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5. Tumor was assessed for DNA methylation (by LINE assays), apoptosis, necrosis, mitoses, Ki67, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1), CTR1, and p16.

Results: Febrile neutropenia was dose limiting. One thymoma patient responded. Decitabine decreased tumor DNA methylation (from median 51.2% predecitabine to 43.7% postdecitabine; P = 0.01, with effects at all doses) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (from 65.3-56.0%). There was no correlation between tumor and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients starting decitabine ≤3 versus >3 months after last prior cytotoxic or targeted therapy had lower predecitabine tumor CTR1 scores (P = 0.02), higher p16 (P = 0.04), and trends (P = 0.07) toward higher tumor methylation and apoptosis. Decitabine decreased tumor DNMT1 for scores initially >0 (P = 0.04). Decitabine increased tumor apoptosis (P < 0.05), mitoses (if initially low, P = 0.02), and CTR1 (if initially low, P = 0.025, or if ≤3 months from last prior therapy, P = 0.04). Tumor CTR1 scores correlated inversely with methylation (r = –0.41, P = 0.005), but CTR1 promoter was not hypermethylated. Only three patients had tumor p16 promoter hypermethylation. P16 scores did not increase. Higher blood pressure correlated with lower tumor necrosis (P = 0.03) and a trend toward greater DNA demethylation (P = 0.10).

Conclusions: Exposure to various cytotoxic and targeted agents might generate broad pleiotropic resistance by reducing CTR1 and other transporters. Decitabine decreases DNA methylation and augments CTR1 expression through methylation-independent mechanisms.

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