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Articles by Z Guan
Total Records ( 3 ) for Z Guan
  J. S Rush , S Matveev , Z Guan , C. R. H Raetz and C. J. Waechter

During evolution the average chain length of polyisoprenoid glycosyl carrier lipids increased from C55 (prokaryotes) to C75 (yeast) to C95 (mammalian cells). In this study, the ability of the E. coli enzyme, undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), to complement the loss of the yeast cis-isoprenyltransferase in the rer2 mutant was tested to determine if (55)dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) could functionally substitute in the protein N-glycosylation pathway for (75)Dol-P, the normal isoprenologue synthesized in S. cerevisiae. First, expression of UPPS in the yeast mutant was found to complement the growth and the hypoglycosylation of carboxypeptidase Y defects suggesting that the (55)polyprenyl-P-P intermediate was converted to (55)Dol-P and that (55)Dol-P could effectively substitute for (75)Dol-P in the biosynthesis and function of Man-P-Dol, Glc-P-Dol and Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-Dol (mature DLO) in the protein N-glycosylation pathway and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor assembly. In support of this conclusion, mutant cells expressing UPPS (1) synthesized (55)Dol-P based on MS analysis, (2) utilized (55)Dol-P to form Man-P-(55)Dol in vitro and in vivo, and (3) synthesized N-linked glycoproteins at virtually normal rates as assessed by metabolic labeling with [3H]mannose. In addition, an N-terminal GFP-tagged construct of UPPS was shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Consistent with the synthesis of (55)Dol-P by the transfected cells, microsomes from the transfected cells synthesized the [14C](55)polyprenyl-P-P intermediate when incubated with [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate and [3H]Man-P-(55)Dol when incubated with GDP-[3H]Man. These results indicate that (C55)polyisoprenoid chains, significantly shorter than the natural glycosyl carrier lipid, can function in the transbilayer movement of DLOs in the endoplasmic reticulum of yeast and mammalian cells, and that conserved sequences in the cis-isoprenyltransferases are recognized by, yet to be identified, binding partners in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells.

  M Sandoval Calderon , O Geiger , Z Guan , F Barona Gomez and C. Sohlenkamp

Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic membrane lipid present in bacteria, plants, and animals, but absent from archaea. It is generally thought that bacteria use an enzyme belonging to the phospholipase D superfamily as cardiolipin synthase (Cls) catalyzing a reversible phosphatidyl group transfer from one phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecule to another PG to form CL and glycerol. In contrast, in eukaryotes a Cls of the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase superfamily uses cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) as the donor of the phosphatidyl group, which is transferred to a molecule of PG to form CL. Searching the genome of the actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) we identified a gene coding for a putative Cls of the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase superfamily (Sco1389). Here we show that expression of Sco1389 in a CL-deficient Rhizobium etli mutant restores CL formation. In an in vitro assay Sco1389 condenses CDP-DAG with PG to form CL and therefore catalyzes the same reaction as eukaryotic cardiolipin synthases. This is the first time that a CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase from bacteria is shown to be responsible for CL formation. The broad occurrence of putative orthologues of Sco1389 among the actinobacteria suggests that CL synthesis involving a eukaryotic type Cls is common in actinobacteria.

  Z Guan , C. M Hughes , S Kosiyatrakul , P Norio , R Sen , S Fiering , C. D Allis , E. E Bouhassira and C. L. Schildkraut

Experimental attempts to activate replication origins within the temporal transition region in the IgH locus in mouse embryonic stem cells were not successful, and thus, why and how they become activated in B cells remains unclear.

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