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Articles by Yudi Pranoto
Total Records ( 9 ) for Yudi Pranoto
  Dina Sugiyanti , Purnama Darmadji , Umar Santoso , Yudi Pranoto , Chairil Anwar and Sri Anggrahini
  Background and Objective: Low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) was interestingly used because of it’s solubility and has good functional properties like antioxidant and antibacterial activity. This study aimed to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chitosan and low molecular weight chitosan. Materials and Methods: Low molecular weight chitosan was obtained by physical and chemical hydrolysis using steam explosion process with steam pressure at 6 bar, temperature at 160°C and concentration of phosphotungstic acid at 0.1% w/v. The antioxidant activity was confirmed by radical DPPH scavenging activity, chelating metal ion value, inhibitory lipid peroxidation and antibacterial activity was confirmed by diffusion methods. Results: LWCS had antioxidant activity higher than native chitosan on radical scavenging, chelating ion value and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. LWCS had higher inhibitory effect as antibacterial than native chitosan against tested bacteria, there were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Conclusion: It was concluded that LWCS had more powerful antioxidant and antibacterial activity than native chitosan.
  Rossi Indiarto , Yudi Pranoto , Umar Santoso and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: The content of polyphenols in cacao beans can be modified during the processing of cacao. This study aimed to obtain the fraction of cacao bean extract polyphenols with the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds profile of extracts and their fractions on cacao beans. Materials and Methods: The cacao beans (fermented for 5 days and unfermented) were blanched (5 min; 95°C), followed with defatted, freeze-dried and extracted uses 80% ethanol solvent. The extract obtained was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous. Extracts and fractions obtained are calculated for yield, total polyphenol uses Folin-ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid uses AlCl3, antioxidant activity uses DPPH and FRAP methods, functional group uses fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and polyphenol compound profiles uses UHPLC-MS/MS. Results: The results showed that the aqueous fraction had the highest yield but lowest chemical content and antioxidant activity. The unfermented cacao beans extract undergoing fractionation using ethyl acetate showed polyphenol content, flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and highest ferric reducing activity. The FTIR analysis showed that the cacao bean extract and its fractions had O-H, C-H, C=O, C=C and C-O-C functional groups. Cacao beans extracts and ethyl acetate fractions were dominated by procyanidin compounds, especially dimer B2. Cacao bean fermentation caused a decrease in procyanidin compounds (monomer to nonamer) and alkaloids (theobromine and caffeine). Conclusion: Unfermented cacao bean extraction is then followed by fractionation with ethyl acetate solvent, obtained the fraction with highest chemical and antioxidant activity.
  Dwi Wulandari , Suharjono Triatmojo , Yuny Erwanto and Yudi Pranoto
  Gelatin is natural substance obtained from the partial hydrolysis of collagen from animal skin, bones and connective tissue. This study examined the influence of acetic acid concentration on characteristics of gelatin extracted from bovine split hide. Bovine split hides were obtained from a local tannery and divided into three groups cured with 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 M acetic acid for 24 h, followed by gradient extraction at 60, 70 and 80°C for 5 h each. Data were analyzed using a completely randomized design each treatment was replicated thrice. The results showed that the acetic acid concentration significantly affected the yield, ash content, pH and gel strength, but not the moisture, fat and protein content or viscosity of the resultant gelatin. Electrophoresis of gelatin proteins showed bands distribution between 25-40 kDa. The amino acid profile of the extracted gelatin was similar to that of collagen with a high level of hydroxyproline. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of O-H, C = O, C = C, C-H and C-O functional groups. The results suggest that gelatin extracted from bovine split hide cured with 0.5 M acetic acid provided the best physicochemical characteristics.
  Nurfitri Ekantari , Eni Harmayani , Yudi Pranoto and Yustinus Marsono
  Background: Calcium is one of the important mineral as a constituent of bone in human, hence critically needed to prevent osteoporosis. Milk is considered as the main source of calcium, however, can not be consumed by those with lactose intolerant. On the other hand, Spirulina plat ensis , a species of microalgae is known for its high calcium level, particularly those cultivated with sea water, thus can be used as calcium source alternative. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability of calcium from Spirulina platensis and compared it with high calcium milk and calcium carbonate by using hypocalcemic Sprague Dawley rats fed with vitamin D-deficient diet. Methodology: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of six rats each. The rats were fed different diets for 8 weeks. The diets included standard diet (control), vitamin D-deficient diet (DVD), DVD+calcium carbonate (DVDCa), DVD+highcalcium milk (DVDMCa) and DVD+Spirulina diet (DVDSp). Results: The results showed that DVDSp group was able to retain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphates level in serum compared to control group (p>0.005). Femur bone integrity and bone mass density of hypocalcemic rats fed with S. platensis contained diet showed better results. Conclusion: It was concluded that bioavailability of calcium from Spirulina platensis was higher than those of milk and calcium carbonate.
  Maherawati , Muhammad Nur Cahyanto , Yudi Pranoto and Tyas Utami
  Background and Objective: A variable amount of residual cyanide can still be found in processed cassava products, indicating that all of the linamarin in cassava cannot be hydrolysis. Linamarin and its enzyme, linamarase, are located in different cellular locations, therefore, disruption of the cell wall by cellulose could provide contact between linamarin and linamarase. The objective of this study was to improve linamarin hydrolysis by endogenous linamarase in cassava slurry using various concentrations of cellulases. Methodology: Cellulases from Celluclast® at concentrations of 0.075 filter paper unit (FPU) mL–1, 0.015 and 0.3 FPU mL–1 were added into cassava slurry and then incubated at 50°C for 24 h. During incubation, the reducing sugar, starch and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) contents were analysed and microscopic examination was conducted. Results: The reducing sugar content increased at all enzyme loadings, indicating that cellulose hydrolysis occurred. The starch content increased to 15.72 g/100 mL slurry at the highest enzyme loading. Rupture of the cassava cell wall was confirmed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that the cell wall was damaged and starch granules were freed from the cell. Cell wall degradation allowed linamarin to make contact with endogenous linamarase and produced HCN, which increased at all enzyme loadings. The pattern of increasing HCN content was in accordance with the endogenous linamarase activity. Conclusion: The addition of cellulases increased linamarin hydrolysis in cassava slurry up to 79%. This methods can reduce the cyanide residue in cassava food products.
  Rossi Indiarto , Yudi Pranoto , Umar Santoso and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: The activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme during fermentation and drying causes a decrease in the polyphenol and flavonoid content of cacao beans. Blanching is important to inactivate the enzyme. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of cacao bean extract in order to obtain a polyphenol-rich cacao extract. Materials and Methods: Unfermented and fermented cacao beans were blanched using water at 95°C ±2°C for 1, 3, 5 and 7 min. The process was then followed with drying and defatting using n-hexane and completed with extraction of polyphenol compounds using 80% ethanol. The blanched cacao beans were analyzed in terms of polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and color, while the extracts of dried cacao beans were analyzed in terms of the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase, color, total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity using DPPH, ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelating activity and the presence of functional groups using fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Results: Blanching unfermented cacao beans at 95°C for 5 min reduced the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase by >99%, maintained the purple color of the unfermented cacao beans and produced the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Five minute blanching also increased antioxidant activity compared to the activity of unblanched cacao beans. The process of fermentation and hot air drying had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the decrease of polyphenols and the associated DPPH antioxidant activity in cacao beans. However, there was no effect (p>0.05) on Fe2+ chelating activity in unblanched cacao beans. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with DPPH antioxidant activity but were not correlated with Fe2+ chelating activity. Conclusion: Blanching unfermented cacao beans with hot water for 5 min at 95°C was shown to increase the free radical scavenging activity by deactivating the polyphenol oxidase enzyme and thereby increasing the total polyphenol content.
  Tanwirul Millati , Yudi Pranoto , Tyas Utami and Nursigit Bintoro
  Background and Objective: Cooked freshly harvested rice has high starch digestibility and a high glycemic index. This study aimed to examine the effect of the temperature and duration of accelerated aging on the physicochemical properties of freshly harvested rice, including in vitro starch digestibility and the estimated glycemic index of cooked rice. Materials and Methods: The rice used was freshly harvested IR 64 variety with 27.36±0.73% moisture content. The accelerated aging process was conducted at various temperatures and durations, namely, room temperature (24-30°C), 40, 50, or 60°C and 2, 4 or 6 days. The parameters quantified were free fatty acid levels, amylose content, thermal and pasting properties, starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice. Results: Free fatty acids, amylose-lipid complexes and thermal properties increase during accelerated aging treatment. The pasting properties increased at 40°C, while at 60°C, there was a slight decrease in all properties except for the pasting temperature, which increased. The starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index decreased and the lowest values were obtained from accelerated aging at 40°C for 4 days, which was not significantly different from 60°C for 4 days, with estimated glycemic index values of 68.61 and 69.82, respectively. Conclusion: The accelerated aging of freshly harvested rice reduced starch digestibility and the estimated glycemic index of cooked rice. The best temperature and time for reducing the starch digestibility and changing the estimated glycemic index of cooked rice from the high to medium category were 40°C and 4 days.
  Wiwit Murdianto , Sri Anggrahini , Sutardi and Yudi Pranoto
  Background and Objective: Cassava is an abundant, low cost and renewable food source. The Gajah variety of cassava, which originates from East Borneo, Indonesia, has a high potential as a source of starch. Oxidation using ozone is an environmentally friendly technology that is safe and does not generate waste products. Oxidized cassava starch is a raw material for various food products. This research aimed to investigate the oxidation of cassava starch using ozone for different ozonation times and study its properties, including the carbonyl and carboxyl contents, color, swelling power, solubility and pasting ability. Materials and Methods: Gajah cassava starch was obtained from East Borneo, Indonesia. Oxidation of a 10% cassava starch suspension was performed using 2 ppm dissolved ozone, stirring at 300 rpm for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at 30°C. Results: The data showed that the carbonyl, carboxyl and amylose contents, whiteness index, solubility and starch paste clarity increased with increasing ozonation time and increased from 0.02-0.12%, 0.04-0.14%, 35.76-41.38%, 87.27-92.43%, 34.08-85.56% and 27.62-81.56% respectively. However, the swelling and pasting abilities decreased. Conclusion: It can be concluded that oxidation of Gajah cassava starch using ozone improves its characteristics, increasing its potential as a raw material for many food products.
  Welli Yuliatmoko , Agnes Murdiati , Yudi Pranoto and Yustinus Marsono
  Background and Objectives: Cavendish Jepara 30 (Musa cavendishii ) banana pseudostem in Indonesia is very abundant and has not been utilized because it is considered to be waste. The pseudostem contains dietary fibre, resistant starch (RS) and antioxidants that are strongly affected by several factors such as plant varieties and processing techniques. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of blanching and soaking in sodium bisulphite solution on changes in dietary fibre, resistant starch, antioxidants and the functional properties of Cavendish Jepara 30 banana pseudostem flour. Materials and Methods: Banana pseudostem of Cavendish Jepara 30 varieties were obtained from PT. Nusantara Tropical Farm Central Lampung, Indonesia. Preparation of the banana pseudostem flour included a blanching treatment at a temperature of 100°C for 10 min or soaking in 1% sodium bisulphite solution for 90 min. Results: The blanching treatment significantly increased the amount of soluble fibre by 3.55%, RS by 10.33%, total phenolic acids by 11.19 mg/100 g and antioxidant activity by 6.15% radical scavenging activity (RSA) but decreased the amount of insoluble fibre by 5.78%. The soaking treatment significantly increased the RS by 9.38% and the antioxidant activity by 12.5% RSA but decreased the insoluble fibre by 6.87%, the total fibre by 6.42% and the total phenolic acids by 17.52 mg/100 g. The blanching treatment also significantly increased the water holding capacity by10.81%, the swelling capacity by 13.87% and the cation exchange capacity was 9.75 meq kg–1. The microscopic structure of the flour after the blanching treatment was more porous and hollower than the natural pseudostem flour. Conclusion: Blanching treatment significantly increased the soluble fibre, RS, total phenolic acid content, antioxidant activity, water holding capacity, swelling capacity and cation exchange capacity of banana pseudostem flour. Blanching had no effect on the oil holding capacity of flour.
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