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Articles by Yu Yang
Total Records ( 6 ) for Yu Yang
  Yu Yang , Philip E. Stewart , Xiaoguang Shi and Chunhao Li
  Here, we report successful transposon mutagenesis in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola. A modified Himar1 transposon, including a new antibiotic selection cassette for T. denticola, generated mutations affecting cell division, transport, and chemotaxis, among other processes. This random mutagenesis system should facilitate research on the biology and pathogenesis of this spirochete, which is associated with human periodontal diseases.
  Tao Yang and Yu Yang
  During the product design phase, due to various factors and random failures, input materials processed might be defective and would be less than input amount. In order to increase the output, defective products are usually formed as a reverse product flow and redesigned. However, these activities would cause an increment of the design capability and processing time for the design entities. The objective of this research is to propose a reliability evaluation model and solution method that would determine the reliability for the product design phase with reverse logistics product re-designing activities. The evaluation model contains design capability and processing time two aspects and the whole system reliability can be derived afterwards. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.
  Jun Yang , Yu Yang , Cheng-Hai Wang , Gen Wang , Hongtao Xu , Wen-Yan Liu and Bao-Cheng Lin
  Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been proven to be involved in the process of pain regulation. This communication was designed to investigate the effect of AVP on acupuncture analgesia in the rat model. The results showed that intraventricular injection (icv) of AVP could enhance acupuncture analgesia in a dose-dependent manner, whereas icv of anti-AVP serum decreased acupuncture analgesia. However, neither intrathecal (ith) nor intravenous injection (iv) of AVP or anti-AVP serum could influence acupuncture analgesia. Electrical acupuncture of “Zusanli” points (St. 36) decreased AVP concentration in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and increased AVP concentration in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON), periaqueductial gray (PAG), caudate nucleus (CdN) and raphe magnus nucleus (RMN), but did not change AVP concentration in the pituitary, spinal cord and plasma. The effect of AVP on acupuncture analgesia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist. These data suggested that AVP in the brain played a role in the process of acupuncture analgesia in combination with the endogenous opiate peptide system.
  Jun Yang , Huifeng Yuan , Jiegen Chu , Yu Yang , Hongtao Xu , Gen Wang , Wen-Yan Liu and Bao-Cheng Lin

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) has been implicated in antinociception. This communication was designed to investigate which neuropeptide and neurotransmitter are involved in AVP antinociception in the rat NRM. The results showed that (1) in the NRM perfuse liquid, pain stimulation could increase the concentrations of AVP, leucine-enkephalin (L-Ek), methionine-enkephalin (M-Ek), β-endorphin (β-Ep), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), but not change the concentrations of dynorphinA1–13 (DynA1–13), oxytocin, achetylcholine, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanilic acid, norepinephrine and epinephrine; (2) in the NRM perfuse liquid, AVP increased the concentrations of L-Ek, M-Ek, β-Ep, DynA1–13, 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but did not change the concentrations of oxytocin and the other studied neurotransmitters; (3) AVP antinociception in the NRM was attenuated by cypoheptadine (a 5-HT-receptor antagonist) or naloxone (an opiate receptor antagonist), but was not influenced by the other studied receptor antagonists. The data suggested that AVP antinociception in the NRM might be involved in endogenous opiate peptide and 5-HT system.

  Edward J. Beck , Yu Yang , Sirin Yaemsiri and Viswanathan Raghuram
  Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the protein dysfunctional in cystic fibrosis, is unique among ATP-binding cassette transporters in that it functions as an ion channel. In CFTR, ATP binding opens the channel, and its subsequent hydrolysis causes channel closure. We studied the conformational changes in the pore-lining sixth transmembrane segment upon ATP binding by measuring state-dependent changes in accessibility of substituted cysteines to methanethiosulfonate reagents. Modification rates of three residues (resides 331, 333, and 335) near the extracellular side were 10–1000-fold slower in the open state than in the closed state. Introduction of a charged residue by chemical modification at two of these positions (resides 331 and 333) affected CFTR single-channel gating. In contrast, modifications of pore-lining residues 334 and 338 were not state-dependent. Our results suggest that ATP binding induces a modest conformational change in the sixth transmembrane segment, and this conformational change is coupled to the gating mechanism that regulates ion conduction. These results may establish a structural basis of gating involving the dynamic rearrangement of transmembrane domains necessary for vectorial transport of substrates in ATP-binding cassette transporters.
  Chan-Hee Kim , Su-Jin Kim , Hongnan Kan , Hyun-Mi Kwon , Kyung-Baeg Roh , Rui Jiang , Yu Yang , Ji-Won Park , Hyeon-Hwa Lee , Nam-Chul Ha , Hee Jung Kang , Masaru Nonaka , Kenneth Soderhall and Bok Luel Lee
  The recognition of lysine-type peptidoglycans (PG) by the PG recognition complex has been suggested to cause activation of the serine protease cascade leading to the processing of Spätzle and subsequent activation of the Toll signaling pathway. So far, two serine proteases involved in the lysine-type PG Toll signaling pathway have been identified. One is a modular serine protease functioning as an initial enzyme to be recruited into the lysine-type PG recognition complex. The other is the Drosophila Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE), a terminal enzyme that converts Spätzle pro-protein to its processed form capable of binding to the Toll receptor. However, it remains unclear how the initial PG recognition signal is transferred to Spätzle resulting in Toll pathway activation. Also, the biochemical characteristics and mechanism of action of a serine protease linking the modular serine protease and SPE have not been investigated. Here, we purified and cloned a novel upstream serine protease of SPE that we named SAE, SPE-activating enzyme, from the hemolymph of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor larvae. This enzyme was activated by Tenebrio modular serine protease and in turn activated the Tenebrio SPE. The biochemical ordered functions of these three serine proteases were determined in vitro, suggesting that the activation of a three-step proteolytic cascade is necessary and sufficient for lysine-type PG recognition signaling. The processed Spätzle by this cascade induced antibacterial activity in vivo. These results demonstrate that the three-step proteolytic cascade linking the PG recognition complex and Spätzle processing is essential for the PG-dependent Toll signaling pathway.
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