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Articles by Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Total Records ( 6 ) for Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  Shin Murakami , Taisuke Horimoto , Shinya Yamada , Satoshi Kakugawa , Hideo Goto and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  In the event of a new influenza pandemic, vaccines whose antigenicities match those of circulating strains must be rapidly produced. Here, we established an alternative reverse genetics system for influenza virus using the canine polymerase I (PolI) promoter sequence that works efficiently in the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line, a cell line approved for human vaccine production. Using this system, we were able to generate H5N1 vaccine seed viruses more efficiently than can be achieved with the current system that uses the human PolI promoter in African green monkey Vero cells, thus improving pandemic vaccine production.
  Peirong Jiao , Guobin Tian , Yanbing Li , Guohua Deng , Yongping Jiang , Chang Liu , Weilong Liu , Zhigao Bu , Yoshihiro Kawaoka and Hualan Chen
  In this study, we explored the molecular basis determining the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mammalian hosts by comparing two viruses, A/Duck/Guangxi/12/03 (DK/12) and A/Duck/Guangxi/27/03 (DK/27), which are genetically similar but differ in their pathogenicities in mice. To assess the genetic basis for this difference in virulence, we used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants of these two viruses. We found that a single-amino-acid substitution of serine for proline at position 42 (P42S) in the NS1 protein dramatically increased the virulence of the DK/12 virus in mice, whereas the substitution of proline for serine at the same position (S42P) completely attenuated the DK/27 virus. We further demonstrated that the amino acid S42 of NS1 is critical for the H5N1 influenza virus to antagonize host cell interferon induction and for the NS1 protein to prevent the double-stranded RNA-mediated activation of the NF-ĸB pathway and the IRF-3 pathway. Our results indicate that the NS1 protein is critical for the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza viruses in mammalian hosts and that the amino acid S42 of NS1 plays a key role in undermining the antiviral immune response of the host cell.
  Qiyun Zhu , Huanliang Yang , Weiye Chen , Wenyan Cao , Gongxun Zhong , Peirong Jiao , Guohua Deng , Kangzhen Yu , Chinglai Yang , Zhigao Bu , Yoshihiro Kawaoka and Hualan Chen
  In 2001 and 2003, we isolated two H5N1 viruses, A/swine/Fujian/1/01 (SW/FJ/01) and A/swine/Fujian/1/03 (SW/FJ/03), from pigs in Fujian Province, southern China. Genetically, these two viruses are similar, although the NS gene of the SW/FJ/03 virus has a 15-nucleotide deletion at coding positions 612 to 626. The SW/FJ/01 virus is highly lethal for chickens, whereas the SW/FJ/03 virus is nonpathogenic for chickens when administrated intravenously or intranasally. To understand the molecular basis for the difference in virulence, we used reverse genetics to create a series of single-gene recombinants of both viruses. We found that a recombinant virus containing the mutated NS gene from the SW/FJ/03 virus in the SW/FJ/01 virus background was completely attenuated in chickens. We also found that viruses expressing the mutant NS1 protein of SW/FJ/03 did not antagonize the induction of interferon (IFN) protein. Conversely, only the recombinant virus containing the wild-type SW/FJ/01 NS gene in the SW/FJ/03 background was lethal in chickens and antagonized IFN protein levels. Further, we proved that the NS1 genes of the two viruses differ in their stabilities in the host cells and in their abilities to interact with the chicken cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. These results indicate that the deletion of amino acids 191 to 195 of the NS1 protein is critical for the attenuation of the SW/FJ/03 virus in chickens and that this deletion affects the ability of the virus to antagonize IFN induction in host cells.
  Tokiko Watanabe , Shinji Watanabe , Jin Hyun Kim , Masato Hatta and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in avian species began in Asia and have since spread to other continents. Concern regarding the pandemic potential of these viruses in humans is clearly warranted, and there is an urgent need to develop effective vaccines against them. Previously, we and others demonstrated that deletions of the M2 cytoplasmic tail caused a growth defect in A/WSN/33 (H1N1) influenza A virus in vitro (K. Iwatsuki-Horimoto, T. Horimoto, T. Noda, M. Kiso, J. Maeda, S. Watanabe, Y. Muramoto, K. Fujii, and Y. Kawaoka, J. Virol. 80:5233-5240, 2006; M. F. McCown and A. Pekosz, J. Virol. 79:3595-3605, 2005; M. F. McCown and A. Pekosz, J. Virol. 80:8178-8189, 2006). We therefore tested the feasibility of using M2 tail mutants as live attenuated vaccines against H5N1 virus. First we generated a series of highly pathogenic H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04 [VN1203]) M2 cytoplasmic tail deletion mutants and examined their growth properties in vitro and in vivo. We found that one mutant, which contains an 11-amino-acid deletion from the C terminus (M2del11 virus), grew as well as the wild-type virus but replicated in mice less efficiently. We then generated a recombinant VN1203M2del11 virus whose hemagglutinin (HA) gene was modified by replacing sequences at the cleavage site with those of an avirulent type of HA (M2del11-HAavir virus). This M2del11-HAavir virus protected mice against challenge with lethal doses of homologous (VN1203; clade 1) and antigenically distinct heterologous (A/Indonesia/7/2005; clade 2) H5N1 viruses. Our results suggest that M2 cytoplasmic tail mutants have potential as live attenuated vaccines against H5N1 influenza viruses.
  Shin Murakami , Taisuke Horimoto , Le Quynh Mai , Chairul A. Nidom , Hualan Chen , Yukiko Muramoto , Shinya Yamada , Ayaka Iwasa , Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto , Masayuki Shimojima , Akira Iwata and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  H5N1 influenza A viruses are exacting a growing human toll, with more than 240 fatal cases to date. In the event of an influenza pandemic caused by these viruses, embryonated chicken eggs, which are the approved substrate for human inactivated-vaccine production, will likely be in short supply because chickens will be killed by these viruses or culled to limit the worldwide spread of the infection. The Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line is a promising alternative candidate substrate because it supports efficient growth of influenza viruses compared to other cell lines. Here, we addressed the molecular determinants for growth of an H5N1 vaccine seed virus in MDCK cells, revealing the critical responsibility of the Tyr residue at position 360 of PB2, the considerable requirement for functional balance between hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), and the partial responsibility of the Glu residue at position 55 of NS1. Based on these findings, we produced a PR8/H5N1 reassortant, optimized for this cell line, that derives all of its genes for its internal proteins from the PR8(UW) strain except for the NS gene, which derives from the PR8(Cambridge) strain; its N1 NA gene, which has a long stalk and derives from an early H5N1 strain; and its HA gene, which has an avirulent-type cleavage site sequence and is derived from a circulating H5N1 virus. Our findings demonstrate the importance and feasibility of a cell culture-based approach to producing seed viruses for inactivated H5N1 vaccines that grow robustly and in a timely, cost-efficient manner as an alternative to egg-based vaccine production.
  Chengjun Li , Masato Hatta , Shinji Watanabe , Gabriele Neumann and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  Reassortment is an important driving force for influenza virus evolution, and a better understanding of the factors that affect this process could improve our ability to respond to future influenza pandemics and epidemics. To identify factors that restrict the generation of reassortant viruses, we cotransfected human embryonic kidney cells with plasmids for the synthesis of viral RNAs of both A/equine/Prague/1/56 (Prague; H7N7) and A/Yokohama/2017/03 (Yokohama; H3N2) viruses together with the supporting protein expression plasmids. Of the possible 256 genotypes, we identified 29 genotypes in 120 randomly plaque-picked reassortants examined. Analyses of these reassortants suggested that the formation of functional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes was a restricting factor, a finding that correlated with the activities of RNP complexes composed of different combinations of the proteins from the two viruses, as measured in a minigenome assay. For at least one nonfunctional RNP complex (i.e., Prague PB2, Prague PB1, Yokohama PA, and Prague NP), the lack of activity was due to the inability of the three polymerase subunit proteins to form a heterotrimer. Adaptation of viruses possessing a gene encoding a chimera of the PA proteins of the two viruses and the remaining genes from Prague virus resulted in compensatory mutations in the PB2 and/or PA protein. These results indicate substantial incompatibility among the gene products of the two test viruses, a critical role for the RNP complex in the generation of reassortant viruses, and a functional interaction of PB2 and PA.
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