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Articles by Yose Rizal
Total Records ( 24 ) for Yose Rizal
  Wizna , Yose Rizal , Hafil Abbas , Abdi Dharma and I.P. Kompiang
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of substitution of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fermented tapioca by-products for some of corn meal in the diets on the performance of broilers and ducklings. 200 unsexed day old broiler chicks and 200 male day old ducklings were randomly allocated into 40 pens (teen chicks or duckling/pen). This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments (0, 10,20, 30 and 40% for broilers and 0, 30, 40, 50 and 60% for ducklings) of fermented by-product tapioca in diets and four replications. Measured variables were those of feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage. Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage were not affected (p>0.05) by levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fermented tapioca by-products in the diets for broilers. However average body weight gain was affected (p<0.05) and feed conversion were highly affected (p<0.01) by levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fermented tapioca by-products in the diets for ducklings. Increasing levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by products of tapioca up to 60% in diets of ducklings increased their body weight gain and reduced their feed conversion. In conclusion, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens- fermented tapioca by-products can be included up to 40% in diets (replace 67% corn meal) for broilers and up to 60% in diets for ducklings (replace 100% corn meal).
  Yose Rizal , Maria Endo Mahata , Mira Andriani and Guoyao Wu
  An experiment was conducted with 80 unsexed broilers of the Arbor Acress strain to determine the capability of a carrot and fruit juice wastes mixture (carrot, apple, mango, avocado, orange, melon and tree tomato) in the same proportion for replacing corn in broiler diet. This study involved a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of juice wastes mixture in diets) and 4 replicates per treatment. Diets were isonitrogenous (22% crude protein) and isocaloric (3000 kcal/kg diet). Measured variables were feed consumption, average daily gain, feed conversion, as well as percentages of abdominal fat pad, carcass, digestive organs (liver, pancreas and gizzard) and heart. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance for CRD. Increasing juice wastes mixture levels in diets increased feed consumption (p<0.05) and average daily gain (p<0.01), while improving feed utilization efficiency (p<0.05). These treatments also affected (p<0.05) abdominal fat pad percentage but had no effect (p>0.05) on carcass, liver, pancreas, gizzard or heart percentages. In conclusion, up to 20% of juice wastes mixture could be included for the broiler diet to effectively replace up to 40% corn in the diet.
  Mirnawati , Yose Rizal , Yetti Marlida and I. Putu Kompiang
  An experiment was conducted for the evaluation of Palm Kernel Cake Fermented (PKCF) by Aspergillus niger as a substitute for soybean meal protein in the diet of broiler. The experiment used a Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were arranged as follows: 1) 0% basic ration (0% PKCF), 2) 20% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 3) 40% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 4) 60% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 5) 80% substitution of soybean meal with PKCF, 6) 100% substitution of soybean meal with PKCF. The ration were formulated in iso protein 22% and iso caloric 3000 k cal/kg ration. This study used a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The parameters of this study were feed consumption, body weight gained, feed conversion and percentage of carcass. The result of this study showed that feed consumption, body weight gained, feed conversion and percentage of carcase were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by any treatment. In conclusion the Palm Kernel Cake Fermented (PKCF) by Aspergillus niger can be 100% a substitute of soybean meal protein or 17% in broiler ration.
  Maria Endo Mahata , Ichni Lestari , Abdi Dharma , Irsan Ryanto H. , Armenia and Yose Rizal
  Serratia marcescens is a bacterium able to produce chitinase for degrading chitin. Broiler chickens can not digest significant amounts of chitin because they produce very little chitinase in their digestive tract. Therefore, broiler feed containing chitin must be processed first with chitinase. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium and a pathogenicity test is required before using its chitinase for processing of feed containing chitin. An experiment was conducted by using broiler. A split-plot, completely randomized design is used in this experiment. The Serratia marcescens dosages (0, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg body weight) were the main plot and observation lengths (2, 4, 8, 16 and 22 days) were the sub plot factor. The ration for different treatments had the same protein (23%) and energy (3000 kkal/kg) content. Feed consumption, average daily gain, body temperature and mortality were parameters. Results showed that feed consumption and average daily gain were significantly affected (p<0.05) by presence of Serratia marcescens. The highest feed consumption (123.10 g/broiler) and average daily gain (76.75 g/broiler/day) were found for the highest bacterium dosage of 320 mg/kg body over 22 days observation. Body temperature range from 39.82-40.08°C and there was no affect of Serratia marcescens on mortality. In conclusion, the Serratia marcescens had no negative effect on broiler performance.
  Maria Endo Mahata , Mailinda Juwita Sasti , Regina Septia Aryani , Yose Rizal and Guoyao Wu
  The Juice Wastes Mixture (JWM) is a combination of waste from carrot and some fruits (apple, mango, avocado, orange, melon and tree tomato) in the same proportion after their juices were squeezed for fresh drink. The JWM could be as an alternative potential feed for replacing corn in the broiler diet. The problem of JWM as broiler feed is the high in crude fiber and low in metabolic energy contents. After processing the JWM by soaking in 20% concentration of rice hull ash filtrate for 72 hr (IJWM), its crude fiber decreased, while its metabolizable energy increased. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of IJWM in broiler diets. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with different levels of IJWM (0, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40%) for replacing corn in the broiler diets. The variables measured were feed consumption, average daily gain, feed conversion, live body weight, abdominal fat pad percentage, carcass percentage, liver percentage and pancreas percentage. Every treatment was repeated 4 times. The results showed that the IJWM influenced the feed consumption, average daily gain, live body weight, feed conversion and abdominal fat pad very significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, liver percentage and pancreas percentage were not affected by the IJWM. In conclusion, the IJWM could be included up to 40% to effectively replace 80% corn in the broiler diets.
  Yose Rizal , Nuraini , Mirnawati , Maria Endo Mahata , Rio Darman and Dendi Kurniawan
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of several levels of Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake in the diet on the production performance of Gold Arab laying-hens and to obtain the appropriate level of this fermented palm kernel cake for reducing the utilization of concentrated feed in the diet. Three hundred Gold Arab laying-hens of 72 weeks old were employed in this experiment and randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 7.25, 10.15 and 13.05% fermented palm kernel cake in diets) in a completely randomized design with five replicates. The measured variable was production performance (feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production). Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production were not influenced (p>0.05) by diets. In conclusion, Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake could be included up to 13.05% to effectively replace 45% concentrated feed in the diet of Gold Arab laying-hens without adverse effect on the production performance.
  Maria Endo Mahata , Jamaluddin Manik , Muhammad Taufik , Yose Rizal and Ardi
  Owing to the beneficial effects of a carotenoid called lycopene in tomatoes, the present work was undertaken to study the effect of dietary unboiled (UT) and boiled tomato (BT) waste in broiler chicken on performance, internal organ development and serum lipid profile. One hundred fifty Arbor Acress strain broiler chicken of one week age were used for the study. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with different combination of UT and BT (0% UT: 0% BT; 25% UT: 75% BT; 50% UT: 50% BT; 75% UT: 25% BT; 100% UB and 100% BT) to completely replace rice-bran and altering the levels of yellow corn and coconut oil in diet. Each treatment was repeated five times. The results revealed that feed consumption, daily weight gain and feed conversion of broiler chicken were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by various dietary combinations of UT and BT waste. The weights of said internal organs of broiler chicken did not vary significantly (p>0.05) by various combination of dietary UT and BT waste. Further, except for HDL, there was a significant (p<0.05) effect on serum total cholesterol, LDL and triglyseride values of broiler chicken fed different combinations of UT and BT waste in diet. In conclusion, boiled tomato waste up to 7% level in the diet of broiler chicken is highly effective in regulation of lipid metabolism in a positive manner and could prove as an important tool for health conscious people in the prevention of atherosclerosis or coronary heart diseases.
  Maria E. Mahata , Yose Rizal , Ardi , Dedek Hermansyah and Gina A. Nurhuda
  Objective: An experiment had been conducted to study the effects of boiled tomato waste utilization in the diet on the serum lipid profile: total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the egg quality (egg yolk cholesterol, egg yolk lipid and egg yolk color index) of 200 Isa Brown laying-hens of 60 weeks-old fed diet containing boiled tomato waste powder and to determine the appropriate level of boiled tomato waste in the diet. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with five different levels of boiled tomato waste powder in diets (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%) as treatments and each treatment was replicated four times. Measured variables were total cholesterol, LDL and HDL of blood serum and total cholesterol, fat contents of egg yolk as well as egg yolk color index of laying-hens. Results: The experiment showed that the total cholesterol, LDL and HDL of laying-hen’s blood serum and fat content of egg yolk was not affected (p>0.05) by different levels of boiled tomato waste powder in diets, while the egg yolk total cholesterol and egg yolk color index were significantly influenced (p<0.05). The increase in the level of boiled tomato waste powder in the diet reduced the total cholesterol in egg yolk but increased the egg yolk color index. Conclusion: The inclusion of 12% boiled tomato waste powder in laying-hen’s diet was the best level for lowering egg yolk total cholesterol and improving egg yolk color index.
  Ulvi Fitri Handayani , Wizna , Irfan Suliansyah , Yose Rizal and Maria Endo Mahata
  Objective: An experiment had been conducted to evaluate the nutrient content of tomato waste for laying hen feed after treating tomato waste with different heating methods. Materials and Methods: The tomato waste used in this experiment was comprised of rejected fresh tomatoes from traditional markets. An experiment was performed in a 2×5 factorial arrangement using a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates. The first factor consisted of two different heating methods (steaming and boiling) and the second factor consisted of five heating durations (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 min). The measured variables were lycopene (mg/100 g), dry matter (%), organic matter (%), ash (%) and nutrient content of tomato waste [crude protein (%) and crude fiber (%)]. Results: There was no interaction (p>0.05) between heating method and heating duration for lycopene, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, organic matter or ash content, while heating method significantly affected (p<0.05) organic matter and ash content. The heating duration also significantly affected (p<0.05) lycopene, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, organic matter and ash content of tomato waste. Boiling was better than steaming for organic matter content, while steaming was better than boiling for ash content. Crude protein and crude fiber in boiling and steaming treatments were not different. The heating duration also significantly affected (p<0.05) lycopene, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, organic matter and ash content of tomato waste. A heating duration of 12 min increased lycopene and organic matter content and maintained the crude protein content. Conclusion: Steaming was the appropriate method for heating tomato waste based on ash content. Heating tomato waste for 12 min was the appropriate method for increasing lycopene and organic matter content and maintaining the crude protein content.
  Maria Endo Mahata , Ardi and Yose Rizal
  Background and Objective: Areca catechu L. is an herbal plant that contains polyphenol (flavonoids and tannin) and alkaloid (arecholine, arecolidine, guvacoline, guvacine and isoguvacine) compounds. Both polyphenols and alkaloids are known to be anthelmintic as well as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cholesterol lowering compounds for poultry and dogs. When Areca catechu L. seeds are harvested, they produce 76% Areca catechu L. peel waste, which can be potentially used as a poultry feed additive to increase poultry performance. Areca catechu L. peel waste contains as much as 1.693% total polyphenols, 1.383% total alkaloids, 1.466% catechins and 456.59 mg/100 g tannins. The utilization of Areca catechu L. peel waste as a poultry feed additive is limited due to the high crude fiber content, which can be as high as 47.02%; the poultry digestive tract does not produce cellulase to hydrolyze crude fiber. The fermentation of Areca catechu peel waste with a local microorganism solution that produces cellulase is one solution for lowering crude fiber in Areca catechu L. peel waste. This experiment was performed to select the best local microorganism solution from different sources as a crude fiber digester in Areca catechu peel waste to produce poultry feed additives. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed with a completely randomized design using five different sources of local microorganism solutions derived from bamboo sprouts, banana corms, mixed fruit waste, mixed vegetable waste and rice waste. As much as 500 mL of each local microorganism solution was used to ferment 200 g of Areca catechu L. peel waste for 2 weeks and each treatment was repeated four times. Crude fiber and dry matter were the parameters in this experiment and the total number of colonies of bacteria and fungi was calculated before and after fermentation with each local microorganism solution. Results: The fermentation of Areca catechu L. peel waste with different sources of local microorganism solutions significantly lowered crude fiber and dry matter (p<0.05) and the total number of colonies of bacteria and fungi decreased after the fermentation process, except for the colony of bacteria and fungi in the local microorganism solution from bamboo sprouts, which increased. Conclusion: Mixed vegetable waste was the best source of local microorganism solutions for lowering crude fiber in Areca catechu L. peel waste and the crude fiber decreased from 47.02-25.95%.
  Ade Trisna , Nuraini Nuraini , Yose Rizal and Mirzah Mirzah
  Background and Objective: Palm oil sludge has been an alternative feed ingredient for poultry but its utilization is limited due to its high content of crude fiber (lignin and cellulose) and its low crude protein content. Fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus (lignocellulolytic fungus producing the enzyme ligninase) was used to degrade the crude fiber to increase the nutritional content of fermented palm oil sludge. This study aimed to determine the best substrate composition of palm oil sludge fermented by Pleurotus ostratus. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design (CRD) was used with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments consisted of palm oil sludge (POS) and rice bran (RB): A (100% POS+0% RB), B (90% POS+10% RB), C (80% POS+20% RB) and D (70% POS+30% RB). The parameters measured were crude protein (%), crude fiber (%), cellulase enzymatic activity (U mL1) and laccase enzymatic activity (U mL1). Results: Fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus showed a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on crude protein content, a significant effect (p<0.05) on crude fiber content and no significant effects (p>0.05) on the enzymatic activities of cellulase and laccase. Conclusion: It is concluded that treatment B increased the crude protein, cellulase activity and laccase activity in palm oil sludge but decreased the crude fiber content.
  Maria Endo Mahata , Abdi Dharma , H. Irsan Ryanto and Yose Rizal
  The objective of this study is to measure the effect of substituting different levels of shrimp waste hydrolysate (SWH) from Penaeus merguensis for fish meal (FM) in broiler diet. The broilers were randomly assigned in 4 different levels of SWH (0, 4, 8, and 12%) in experimental diet with a Completely Randomized Design. Each dietary treatment was replicated five times. The result of this experiment indicated that weight gain, feed conversion, and percentage nitrogen retention were affected significantly (P<0.05), and no significant differences were found for feed consumption, percentage carcass, percentage abdomen fat, and digestive organ size (liver, proventriculus, gizzard, cecum, and pancreas). The inclusion of SWH until 8% in broiler diet kept the weight gain and feed conversion stable as well as FM in diet, however the inclusion to 12% decreased weight gain and negative effect in feed conversion. In conclusion, SWH could be included to 8% in broiler`s diet or substitute FM as alternative of animal protein source as much as 40%.
  Wizna , Hafil Abbas , Yose Rizal , Abdi Dharma and I. Putu Kompiang
  An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of sago pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) and rumen content mixture through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The experiment was determination of the optimum conditions (dosage of inoculums, fermentation length and temperature) for sago pith and rumen content mixture fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental methods, using the completely randomize design in factorial with 3 treatment were : 1. A factor (Dosage of inoculums: A1 = 2%, A2 = 6%, A3 = !0%), 2. B factor (Fermentation length : B1 = 3 days, B2 = 6 days, B3 = 9 days) and 3. C factor (Temperature : C1 = 30oC, C2 = 40oC and C3 = 50oC). Results of study showed that optimum conditions of the fermentation of sago pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) and rumen content mixture was at 2% dosage of inoculums, 9 days of fermentation length and 40oC temperature. This conditions can decrease 33% of crude fiber and increase 42% of crude protein which made the nutritional value of the product based on dry-substance was 15.79% crude protein, 2.75% crude fat, 18.54% crude fiber, 0.20% calcium, 0.16% phosphor, 2540 Kcal/kg metabolic energy, and 66.65% nitrogen retention.
  Wizna , Hafil Abbas , Yose Rizal , Abdi Dharma and I. Putu Kompiang
  An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of tapioca by-products (onggok) through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The experiment was determination of the optimum conditions (dosage of inoculums, fermentation length and temperature) for tapioca by-products (onggok) fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental methods, using the completely randomize design in factorial with 3 treatment were: 1) A factor (Dosage of inoculums: A1 = 2%, A2 = 6%, A3 = !0%), 2) B factor (Fermentation length: B1 = 3 days, B2 = 6 days, B3 = 9 days) and 3) C factor (Temperature: C1 = 30oC, C2 = 40oC, C3 = 50oC). Results of study showed that optimum conditions of the fermentation of tapioca by-products (onggok) was at 2% dosage of inoculums, 6 days of fermentation length and 40oC temperature. This conditions can decrease 32% of crude fiber and increase 360% of crude protein which made the nutritional value of the product based on dry-substance was 7.9% crude protein, 2.75% crude fat, 11.55% crude fiber, 0.26% calcium, 0.17% phosphor, 2190 Kcal/kg metabolic energy and 65.95% nitrogen retention.
  Mirnawati , Yose Rizal , Yetti Marlida and I. Putu Kompiang
  An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of palm kernel cake through fermentation by Aspergillus niger with combination humid acid dosage and fermented time. The experiment used Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with 3 x 3 factorial and twice replication. The first factor was humic acid dosage: (1) 0 ppm, (2) 100 ppm and (3) 200 ppm. The second factor was fermented time: (1) 5 day, (2) 7 day and (3) 9 day. The parameters were dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber. The result of study showed that there was no significantly (p>0.05) interaction between humic acid dosage and fermented time to dry matter, but against crude protein and crude fiber, there were highly significant interaction (p<0.01). Humic acid dosage were not (p>0.05) effected to dry matter, but against crude protein and crude fiber, there were significant (p<0.01) effect. Fermented time showed that there were highly significant (p<0.01) effect to dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber. The conclusion was palm kernel cake which was fermented by Aspergilus niger showed that humic acid 100 ppm and fermented time 7 day had a better content. This condition can be seen in crude protein 23,20%, crude fiber 10,59% and dry matter 42.38%.
  Maria Endo Mahata , Yose Rizal and Guoyao Wu
  The problem of juice waste mixture as poultry diet was high in crude fiber and low in metabolizable energy contents. Experiments were performed to improve the nutrient quality of juice waste mixture by using steam pressure. The first experiment was designed in a completely randomized design with 4 different incubation times of juice waste mixture (0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes) in Autoclave (15 psi pressure and 121°C), and each treatment was replicated 5 times. Measured variables were crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat. The second experiment was to compare of crude fiber, crude protein, ether extract, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, nitrogen retention, amino acid profile, and metabolizable energy of juice waste mixture between treated vs. untreated one. The results showed that the crude fiber, crude protein, and crude fat of juice waste mixture were significantly affected (P<0.05) by incubation time in autoclave. The incubation time for 30 minutes decreased crude fiber and crude fat, but increased crude protein contents of the juice waste mixture. The crude fiber, ether extract, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and lignin contents between untreated vs treated reduced from 17.10, 6.24, 34.30, 24.40, 12.20, and 11.80% to 12.02, 4.06, 32.62, 22.05,10.50,11.55%, respectively. Meanwhile, nitrogen retention, crude protein, hemi-cellulose, and metabolizable energy increased from 59.99, 8.40, 9.90%, and 1744 kcal/kg to 65.51, 13.35, 10.57%, and 2550 kcal/kg, respectively. In conclusion, the incubation time for 30 minutes in autoclave was the best treatment for improving the nutrient quality of juice waste mixture.
  Yose Rizal , Maria Endo Mahata , Indra Joli and Guoyao Wu
  Two experiments were conducted to improve Juice Wastes Mixture’s (JWM’s) nutrient quality by using Trichoderma viride and to compare between treated vs. untreated one. This JWM consists of carrot, apple, mango, avocado, orange, melon and tree-tomato in the same proportion. Experiment 1 was performed in a 3 x 5 factorial experiment of completely randomized design with 3 replicates. First factor was Trichoderma viride concentration (5, 7 and 9%) and second factor was incubation period (0, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days). Measured variables were Crude Fiber (CF), Crude Protein (CP) and Ether Extract (EE). Experiment 2 was to compare nutrient content between treated vs. untreated one. Measured variables were JWM’s CF, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, nitrogen retention, amino acid profile and Metabolizable Energy (ME). There was a very significant (p<0.01) interaction between Trichoderma viride concentration and incubation period in which 7% Trichoderma viride and 5 day incubation period reduced CF and EE and increased CP content. CF, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents between untreated vs. treated one declined from 17.10, 6.24, 34.30, 24.40, 12.20, 9.90 and 11.80% to 12.23, 3.72, 31.55, 22.43, 11.15, 9.12 and 11.28%, respectively. Meanwhile, nitrogen retention and CP increased from 58.40 and 8.40% to 63.64 and 11.29%, respectively. ME content of treated was better than untreated JWM (1774 vs. 2599 kkal/kg). Trichoderma viride treatment improved JWM’s amino acids profile. In conclusion, fermentation by 7% Trichoderma viride at 5 day incubation period was the best treatment for improving JWM’s nutrient quality.
  Wizna , Hafil Abbas , Yose Rizal , Ade Djulardi and Helmi Muis
  An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of rice bran which supplemented with Zn, Sulfur and urea through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of catalytic substrate consisting of Zn, sulfur and urea on the substrata characteristics and its microbial population.The experiment was determination of the optimum conditions (dosage of Zn, Sulfur and urea) for rice bran fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental methods, using the completely randomize design in factorial with 3 treatments were : 1) A factor (Dose of urea: A1 = 1.0%, A2 = 1.5%, A3 = 2.0%), 2) B factor (Dose sulfur: B1 = 0.2%, B2 = 0.4%, B3 = 0.8%) and 3) C factor (Dose Zn: C1 = 0.0025%, C2 = 0.005%, C3 = 0.0075%). Results of study showed that optimum conditions of the fermentation of rice brand was at 2% urea, 0.0025% Zn and 0.2% sulfur. The protein level increased 100% and the mineral content 60%, accompanied by 8.2% of increase in the digestibility. The level of phytic acid decreased 97%. This conditions can increase 36% of metabolizable energy, 15% nitrogen retention, 98% crude fiber digestible.
  Gita Ciptaan , Yetti Marlida , Periadnadi and Yose Rizal
  The research was conducted to determine the optimum dose of phytase supplementation of Fusarium verticillioides on Phosphor-deficient rations. This study used 24 broiler chickens (4 weeks). This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five ration treatments with 4 replications. Ration treatment was supplemented phytase with different doses: R1: 0 U/kg, R2: 250 U/ kg, R3: 500 U/kg, R4: 750 U/kg and R5: 1000 U/kg. Ration was based on iso protein (20%) and iso energy (2882 kcal/kg). The variables measured were retention of phosphor, calcium and nitrogen. The results showed that supplementation of phytase on broiler rations which Phosphor-deficiency was influenced the retention of Phosphor, calcium and nitrogen significantly (P<0.01). The optimum phytase supplementation of Fusarium verticillioides on broiler rations which phosphor-deficient was 750 U/kg ratio, it is seen from retention of phosphor (71.38%), calcium (75.65%) and nitrogen (67.61%).
  Harnentis , Yetti Marlida , Yose Rizal and Maria Endo Mahata
  Eleven isolates of thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring and collected from West Sumatera of Indonesia. The bacteri isolated were grown on medium agar containing locust bean gum at 60°C for 48 hours to examine their mannanase production by using Congo red test. It was found that four isolates showed positive results with clear zone around the cultures. All isolates were evaluated their mannanase activity by growing in liquid medium supplemented with 0.5% locust bean gum as mannan source. It was found that isolate SM-1.4 displayed that highest enzyme activity of 119,44 U/ml and specific activity of 19.55 U/mg protein. The optimal growth conditions were at 60°C, pH 7 and 24 hours of incubation. According to the morphological studies, the isolate SM-1.4 was primarily identified as the genus Bacillus. The bacteria was gram negative and has endospore.
  Yose Rizal , Nuraini , Mirnawati and Maria Endo Mahata
  An experiment has been conducted to compare the nutrient contents and nutritional values of palm kernel cake (PKC) from different fermentation processes. This experiment was designed in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments and five replicates. Treatments were A = unfermented PKC (control), B = fermented PKC with Neurospora crassa, C = fermented PKC with Penicillium sp., D = fermented PKC with Trichoderma harzianum, E = fermented PKC with Aspergillus niger and F = fermented PKC with Aspergillus niger+humic acid. Measured variables were nutrient contents (crude protein, crude fiber and ether extract) and nutritional values (nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestibility and metabolizable energy) of fermented and unfermented PKCc. Results of experiment indicated that the crude fiber content of fermented PKCs was very significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of control, but there was no difference (p>0.05) among the fermented PKCs. Fermentation with different fungi increased (p<0.05) the crude protein content of PKCs when it was compared with control. The crude protein content of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus niger+humic acid fermented PKCs were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Trichoderma harzianum, Neurospora crassa, or Penicillium sp., fermented PKCs or control. The ether extract content of PKC was very significantly affected (p<0.01) by treatments. Aspergillus niger+humic acid, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus niger fermented PKCs possessed the lower ether extract content (p<0.05) than that of Penicillium sp., or Trichoderma harzianum fermented PKCs, or control. The crude fiber digestibility of Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus niger+humic acid fermented PKCs was very significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of Penicillium sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Neurospora crassa fermented PKCs, or control. The nitrogen retention of Aspergillus niger+humic acid fermented PKC was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Penicillium sp., Neurospora crassa fermented PKCs, or control, but was not differed (p>0.05) from that of Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger fermented PKCs. The fermentation with different fungi improved (p<0.05) the metabolizable energy content of PKC. Thus, the improvement of the nutrient contents and nutritional values of Aspergillus niger fermented PKC was better than the other treatments.
  Yose Rizal , Maria Endo Mahata , Guoyao Wu , Hapris Maryudi and Mira Andriani
  Two experiments had been conducted to improve the nutrient quality of carrot and fruits (apple, mango, avocado, orange, melon and tree-potato) juice waste mixture. Experiment 1: to determine effects of rice-hull ash filtrate level and soaking length on nutrient contents of this juice waste mixture. A 3 x 4 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with 3 replicates was performed. First factor was rice-hull ash filtrate level (10, 20 and 30%) and second factor was soaking length (0, 24, 48 and 72 h). Measured variables were: crude fiber, crude protein and ether extract contents. Experiment 2: to compare treated vs. untreated juice wastes mixture numerically. Nutrient contents (crude fiber, crude protein and ether extract), anti-nutrition contents (phytate and tannin) and nutritive values (amino acids profile, nitrogen retention and metabolizable energy) of treated juice waste mixture were compared with untreated one. Results of experiment 1: crude fiber and ether extract reduced (p<0.01) by soaking in 20% rice-hull ash filtrate for 72 h, while crude protein increased (p<0.01). In experiment 2, crude fiber and ether extract decreased from 17.10 to 12.70% and 6.18 to 5.50%, respectively. Crude protein and phytate increased from 9.58 to 12.22% and 0.84 to 1.28%, respectively. Tannin content did not differ (1.60 vs. 1.59%). Amino acid contents were improved. Nitrogen retention and metabolizable energy were augmented from 59.99 to 67.57% and from 1744 to 2717 kcal/kg, respectively. In conclusion, carrot and fruit juice wastes mixture soaking in 20% rice-hull ash filtrate for 72 h improved its nutrient quality.
  Ahadiyah Yuniza , Tertia Delia Nova , Wingki Ari Angga , Annisa and Yose Rizal
  Background: The utilization of Cassava Leaf Meal (CLM) and Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in poultry diet is still limited due the high in crude fiber and other anti-nutrition compounds. The processing of these 2 feedstuffs, such as fermentation by using microbes did not perform much improvement in their utilization in poultry diets. Fermentation of feedstuffs by using fungi took a longer time than by using bacteria such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens . Fermentation of the combination of CLM and PKC could elicit the complementary effect in supporting the growth of bacteria. Objective: Thus, an experiment had been conducted to determine the effects of the combinations of CLM and PKC mixture fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the alteration of their dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and crude lipid contents and the best combination of CLM and PKC for fermentation. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were the combination of CLM and PKC as follows: 100:0% (A), 80:20% (B), 60:40% (C), 40:60% (D) and 20:80% (E). These combinations of CLM and PKC were fermented by using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens at the dose of 6% for 6 days. Measured variables were the reduction percentage in dry matter, crude fiber and crude lipid and the increasing percentage in crude protein. Results: Results of experiment indicated that the combinations of CLM and PKC mixture very significantly affected (p<0.01) the reduction percentage in dry matter and crude fiber and increasing percentage in crude protein, as well as significantly influenced (p<0.05) the reduction percentage in crude lipid. Conclusion: The lower reduction percentage in dry matter was in treatments A and B, the higher increasing percentage in crude protein was in treatments B and C, the higher reduction percentage in crude fiber was in treatments D and E and the higher reduction percentage in crude lipid was in treatments A, B and C. It is concluded that the best combination of CLM and PKC fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was 80:20% (treatment B).
  Wingki Ari Angga , Yose Rizal , Maria Endo Mahata , Ahadiya Yuniza and Reni Mayerni
  Background and Objective: West Sumatra is the third largest tea-producing area in Indonesia. Tea plantations in this area produce top quality leaves that can be marketed both domestically and internationally. To maintain a high level of tea leaf productivity, plants should be pruned every 3 years using a rotation system that involves monthly prunings. These prunings produce waste tea leaves that can serve as alternative feed resource for poultry as they have good nutritional value. Tea leaves contain high concentrations of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and policosanol as well as minerals and vitamins, which are known to improve poultry health. Unfortunately, tea leaves also contain high levels of tannins and crude fiber-components known to be detrimental to poultry. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of waste tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) as poultry feed in West Sumatra by reducing their tannin content through immersion in fresh and hot water. Materials and Methods: This research consisted of two phases. The first phase was a survey of the potential of waste tea leaves as poultry feed through interviews and measurement of waste tea leaf production. The second phase was to experimentally process waste tea leaves through immersion in fresh and hot water. Variables measured during phase 1 included the size of tea plantations, ownerships, tea varieties produced, waste tea leaf production and estimated potential for poultry feed. The experiment conducted in phase 2 was performed using a completely randomized design involving 2×4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 4 replicates. The first experimental variable was water temperature (room temperature or 80°C). The second experimental variable was based on immersion at 6, 12, 18 or 24 h. Response variables measured included change in tannin content, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF). Results: The results of the first phase indicated that the area of tea plantations in West Sumatra was 4,246.6 ha, ownership consisted of small holders (2,172 ha), the government (604.58 ha) and a private company (1,470 ha), total waste tea leaf production was 25,208.28 t/year, tea varieties or clones were Camellia sinensis assamica TRI 2024 and assamica TRI 2025 and waste tea leaves had the potential to feed 4,201,380,000 laying hens. The results of the second phase indicated that there was an interaction between water temperature and immersion duration on tannin reduction (p<0.05). Water temperature significantly influenced (p<0.01) reductions in OM and CP content and significantly affected (p<0.05) CF augmentation. Immersion duration significantly affected (p<0.05) DM reductions and highly significantly influenced (p<0.01) reductions in OM and CP. Conclusion: Waste tea leaves can be immersed in hot water (80°C) for 12 h to reduce their tannin content without affecting their protein content.
 
 
 
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