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Articles by Ying Gao
Total Records ( 5 ) for Ying Gao
  Adrian S. Ray , Jennifer E. Vela , Constantine G. Boojamra , Lijun Zhang , Hon Hui , Christian Callebaut , Kirsten Stray , Kuei-Ying Lin , Ying Gao , Richard L. Mackman and Tomas Cihlar
  GS-9131 is a phosphonoamidate prodrug of the novel ribose-modified phosphonate nucleotide analog GS-9148 that demonstrates potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and an excellent resistance profile in vitro. Prodrug moieties were optimized for the efficient delivery of GS-9148 and its active diphosphate (DP) metabolite to lymphoid cells following oral administration. To understand the intracellular pharmacology of GS-9131, incubations were performed with various types of lymphoid cells in vitro. The intracellular accumulation and antiviral activity levels of GS-9148 were limited by its lack of cellular permeation, and GS-9131 increased the delivery of GS-9148-DP by 76- to 290-fold relative to that of GS-9148. GS-9131 activation was saturable at high extracellular concentrations, potentially due to a high-affinity promoiety cleavage step. Once inside the cells, GS-9148 was efficiently phosphorylated, forming similar amounts of anabolites in primary lymphoid cells. The levels of GS-9148-DP formed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with HIV-1 were similar to that in uninfected PBMCs, and approximately equivalent intracellular concentrations of GS-9148-DP and tenofovir (TVF)-DP were required to inhibit viral replication by 90%. Once it was formed, GS-9148-DP was efficiently retained in activated CD4+ cells, with a half-life of 19 h. In addition, GS-9131 showed a low potential for drug interactions with other adenine nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, based on the lack of competition for anabolism between suprapharmacologic concentrations of GS-9148 and TVF and the lack of activity of GS-9131 metabolites against purine nucleoside phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in the clearance of 2`,3`-dideoxyinosine. Together, these observations elucidate the cellular pharmacology of GS-9131 and illustrate its efficient loading of lymphoid cells, resulting in a prolonged intracellular exposure to the active metabolite GS-9148-DP.
  Tomas Cihlar , Adrian S. Ray , Constantine G. Boojamra , Lijun Zhang , Hon Hui , Genevieve Laflamme , Jennifer E. Vela , Deborah Grant , James Chen , Florence Myrick , Kirsten L. White , Ying Gao , Kuei-Ying Lin , Janet L. Douglas , Neil T. Parkin , Anne Carey , Rowchanak Pakdaman and Richard L. Mackman
  GS-9148 [(5-(6-amino-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-yloxymethyl)phosphonic acid] is a novel ribose-modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) selected from a series of nucleoside phosphonate analogs for its favorable in vitro biological properties including (i) a low potential for mitochondrial toxicity, (ii) a minimal cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubule cells and other cell types, (iii) synergy in combination with other antiretrovirals, and (iv) a unique resistance profile against multiple NRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. Notably, antiviral resistance analysis indicated that neither the K65R, L74V, or M184V RT mutation nor their combinations had any effect on the antiretroviral activity of GS-9148. Viruses carrying four or more thymidine analog mutations showed a substantially smaller change in GS-9148 activity relative to that observed with most marketed NRTIs. GS-9131, an ethylalaninyl phosphonoamidate prodrug designed to maximize the intracellular delivery of GS-9148, is a potent inhibitor of multiple subtypes of HIV-1 clinical isolates, with a mean 50% effective concentration of 37 nM. Inside cells, GS-9131 is readily hydrolyzed to GS-9148, which is further phosphorylated to its active diphosphate metabolite (A. S. Ray, J. E. Vela, C. G. Boojamra, L. Zhang, H. Hui, C. Callebaut, K. Stray, K.-Y. Lin, Y. Gao, R. L. Mackman, and T. Cihlar, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:648-654, 2008). GS-9148 diphosphate acts as a competitive inhibitor of RT with respect to dATP (Ki = 0.8 µM) and exhibits low inhibitory potency against host polymerases including DNA polymerase γ. Oral administration of GS-9131 to beagle dogs at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight resulted in high and persistent levels of GS-9148 diphosphate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (with a maximum intracellular concentration of >9 µM and a half-life of >24 h). This favorable preclinical profile makes GS-9131 an attractive clinical development candidate for the treatment of patients infected with NRTI-resistant HIV.
  Xiaofeng Wang , Weiyao Zhu , Qingjun Deng , Ying Gao and Xueling Zhang
  Polyacrylamide solution will have a stronger hydrolysis under the condition of high temperature, then hydrolysis degree increasing, when the degree of hydrolysis exceeds a certain value, the viscosity of the solution is on the decline. If the solution of high salinity, especially with high bivalent cation content (hardness), the viscosity declines substantially, even will produce precipitation which will make polymer lose oil displacement ability. The hydrolysis degree of polyacrylamide is an important factor affecting and limiting the use of polymer in high temperature reservoirs. By studying the theory of chemical reaction dynamics, the mathematical model of the hydrolysis degree of polymer has been established theoretically, influencing factors such as temperature, salinity, polymer solution concentration on hydrolysis degree of polymer have been simulated which provided the effective guidance for polymer under high temperature and high salinity reservoir.
  Yujiao Wang , Bing Wu , Ying Gao , Yawen Tang , Tianhong Lu , Wei Xing and Changpeng Liu
 

The oxidation of formic acid at the Pd/C catalyst electrode is a completely irreversible kinetic process with the reaction order of 1.0. The oxidation rate of formic acid is increased with increasing the concentration of formic acid and is decreased with increasing H+ concentration. The apparent negative reaction order with respect to H+ is about –0.18 or –0.04 in H2SO4 or HClO4 solution respectively, because bisulfate anions would inhibit formic acid oxidation at some extent. The kinetic parameters, charge transfer coefficient and the diffusion coefficient of formic acid were obtained under the quasi steady-state conditions.

  Gareth Williams , Andrew Wood , Emma- Jane Williams , Ying Gao , Mary L. Mercado , Alan Katz , Diane Joseph-McCarthy , Brian Bates , Huai- Ping Ling , Ann Aulabaugh , Joe Zaccardi , Yuhong Xie , Menelas N. Pangalos , Frank S. Walsh and Patrick Doherty
  Gangliosides are key players in neuronal inhibition, with antibody-mediated clustering of gangliosides blocking neurite outgrowth in cultures and axonal regeneration post injury. In this study we show that the ganglioside GT1b can form a complex with the Nogo-66 receptor NgR1. The interaction is shown by analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation and is mediated by the sialic acid moiety on GT1b, with mutations in FRG motifs on NgR1 attenuating the interaction. One FRG motif was developed into a cyclic peptide (N-AcCLQKFRGSSC-NH2) antagonist of GT1b, reversing the GT1b antibody inhibition of cerebellar granule cell neurite outgrowth. Interestingly, the peptide also antagonizes neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by soluble forms of the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Structure function analysis of the peptide point to the conserved FRG triplet being the minimal functional motif, and mutations within this motif inhibit NgR1 binding to both GT1b and MAG. Finally, using gene ablation, we show that the cerebellar neuron response to GT1b antibodies and soluble MAG is indeed dependent on NgR1 function. The results suggest that gangliosides inhibit neurite outgrowth by interacting with FRG motifs in the NgR1 and that this interaction can also facilitate the binding of MAG to the NgR1. Furthermore, the results point to a rational strategy for developing novel ganglioside antagonists.
 
 
 
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