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Articles by Yi Liu
Total Records ( 15 ) for Yi Liu
  Yi Liu
  A unique biomedical device, the hand-held powdered injection system (biolistics), is proposed for the targeting delivery of DNA vaccines. The underlying principle is to harness energy of high-pressure helium to accelerate a pre-measured dose of DNA vaccine coated in microgold particles to an appropriate momentum in order to penetrate the outer layer of the skin or mucosal tissue to achieve a biological effect. The novelty of this hand-held biolistics, using the venturi effect to entrain micron-sized vaccines into an established quasi-steady Supersonic Jet Flow (QSSJF) and accelerate them towards the target. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize of prototype biolistic system. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are presented. The overall capability of the biolistic system to deliver the particles is discussed. The statistic analyses show the particle impact velocity is achieved 745 m s-1 for representative gold particles.
  Shizhen Bai and Yi Liu
  In order to determine the retailer's optimal ordering strategy, assumed that the retailer will adjust the quantity and the payment during order process, analyzed the single retailers ordered process and characteristics from multi suppliers, in the short lifecycle products random demand. Established respectively the profit models of the one stage order strategy and two stage order strategy, analyzed and compared the two kinds of strategy influence on the retailer's profits. The results showed that for short lifecycle products in the random demand, considering the suppliers' wholesale prices and each individual production capacity, the single retailer facing multi suppliers would select suppliers with the optimal order quantity. Focusing on the maximize profit, retailer would select one stage order strategy, rather than two stage order strategy.
  Yi Liu
  The rationality and sustainability of the development of sports industry structure is very important in sports industrialization process and the sports industry talents are the key factor. Therefore, it becomes exceptionally significant to study the relationship between the training of sports industry talents in colleges and universities and social needs. In order to analyze the sports industry and talents training model in Hubei Province in a rational way and provide a more reasonable proposal for that, this study uses gray system theory to establish a gray evaluation model. According to the characteristics of sports industry talents, a model of application-oriented interdisciplinary sports industry talents is presented, as well as strategies in the process of training model construction.
  Yi Liu , Bingqian Wang , Zhaoting Fan and Haijin Liu
  The proliferation of erythroid cells in peripheral blood was detected by anti-PCNA monoclonal antibody (PC10) with a means of immunocytochemistry in diploid and triploid rainbow trout. The rate of PCNA positive erythroid cells in triploidy peripheral blood was detected by flow cytometry. The erythrocytes which were positive for PCNA were confined in the cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. About 6.4% erythrocytes were found positive for PCNA in triploid rainbow trout while only 0.4% in diploids. And the PCNA positive rate of the erythrocytes was 0.37% in diploids and 8.39% in triploids in average. PCNA, a proliferating marker is found to be expressed only in immature cells in the peripheral erythrocytes of triploid rainbow trout. This suggests that peripheral erythrocytes with the ability of proliferating are immature cells.
  Hua-Li Wu , Hui-Ying Wang , Da-Qian He , Yi Liu , Shao-Ming Gong , Fan-Li Kong and Qing Zhu
  Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPAR-γ) was a key regulator of proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the PPAR-γ gene on slaughter traits of 170 individuals from Zhejiang White geese (ZW) and the ontogenetic expression pattern. PCR-SSCP technique was developed to analyze coding region of the PPAR-γ gene polymorphism. The results showed that two genotypes (AA and AG) which were the products of two alleles (A and G) were observed. Association analysis indicated that this SNP was significantly associated with percentage of goose leg muscle (p<0.05) and the allele A was the predominant allele. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay measured the PPAR-γ mRNA expression in ZW and Landes goose five tissues of different ages (P1, P14, P21, P28, P35, P42, P49, P56 and P63). The results showed that the PPAR-γ mRNA had the highest expression level in goose abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat followed by lung and intestine. The PPAR-γ mRNA levels exhibited a rise-decline change in fat tissues except for ZW subcutaneous fat. The values in fat tissues were higher than those of other tissues at the same goose breed (p<0.01). Besides, average values in ZW fat and liver tissues were higher than those of Landes goose totally. These results suggested that the PPAR-γ expressions were positively associated with goose fat development and had a breed-related tendency. The PPAR-γ gene polymorphism could be used in Marker Assistant Selection (MAS) as a genetic marker for goose slaughter traits.
  De-Ming Yin , Fen Li , Xi-Jun Wang , Yuan Lin , Zeng-Zai Liu , Ning-Bo Xia , Xiao-Feng Sheng , Ting Wang , Yi Liu and Wei Liu
  Little information is available about prevalence of helminthes in pigs in Hunan Province. In the present study, the prevalence of helminths in adult pigs was investigated in Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China between 2009 and 2012. A total of 690 pigs slaughtered in local abattoirs from ten representative administrative regions in Hunan Province were examined for the presence of helminths using traditional helminthological approach. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. A total of eight species of helminths were found in pigs which represent three classes. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of helminth infections in pigs in Hunan Province, China.
  Cui Wang , Yi Liu , Yunzhou Yang , Huiying Wang , Sifeng Yi , Chuang Li , Shaoming Gong , Weihu Chen and Daqian He
  MyoGenin (MyoG) is a basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor that belongs to the Muscle-specific transcription Factors (MRFs) family which plays critical roles in regulating the skeletal muscle development and growth. In this study, the complete coding sequence and genomic DNA sequence of goose MyoG gene were cloned and characterized. The goose MyoG CDS was composed of 684bp that encoded a 227 amino acid protein, including a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix domain. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced goose MyoG protein was conserved in vertebrates, especially in the avian species. The goose MyoG genomic DNA sequence we obtained was 3444bp and consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns.Sem-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the goose MyoG mRNA was specifically expressed in the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues, little or no expression was observed in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscular stomach, brain, intestine and sebum. These data will serve as a foundation for further insight into the functions of the MyoG gene in Chinese domestic goose.
  Yi Liu
  The interaction of a shock wave and boundary layer in a highly loaded blade often leads to extremely complicated flow phenomena. This is especially true when operated in the off-design conditions. In this study, a modified implicit flux-vector-splitting solver of the Navier-stokes equations is extended to numerically study the performance of such transonic cascade flow under design and off-design conditions. A compressible low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model and a transition model are integrated into the numerical code in order to predict the boundary layer and its interaction with the shock accurately. The aerodynamic performance of prototype highly loaded blade is investigated through a serious of numerical studies. Numerical results are presented and discussed.
  Yi Liu
  This study is concerned with the heat transfer and aerodynamics of a needle-free epidermal powdered delivery system (biolistic system). Numerical simulations of a transient impinging jet being issued from a biolistic device have been performed to study momentum and heat transfer characteristics, with an emphasis on the gas properties immediately above a skin target. It is found that during the operation the impingement heat transfer is very unsteady. The starting process dominates features of the flow and heat transfer as it approaches the skin target. The effects of this impinging jet on the human skin are subsequently explored by a one-dimensional convection heat transfer model. Spatial-temporal characteristics of skin heat transfer are analysed and demonstrated the temperature fluctuations in the epidermal layer of skin are negligible (<1 °C). These quantitative results indicate the biolistic system is patient-friendly and pain-free, apart from the unique epidermal vaccination capability.
  Zhaogang Sun , Yanjie Chao , Xuxia Zhang , Jianyuan Zhang , Yan Li , Yunqing Qiu , Yi Liu , Lihui Nie , Aizhen Guo and Chuanyou Li
  Thirteen extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates which were highly resistant to a broad spectrum of antituberculosis drugs were identified from 1,926 clinical isolates in China. They had highly diverse mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat patterns. Most, but not all, of the drug target genes had mutations contributing to resistance to the corresponding drug.
  YI Liu , Yun-Jun Liu , Jun-Hua Yao , Wen-Jie Mei and Fu-Hai Wu
  Two Ru(II) complexes [Ru(dmb)2(dtmi)](ClO4)2 (1) (dmb = 4, 4’-dimethyl-2, 2’-bipyridine, dtmi = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5, 6-f]-5-methoxylisatin) and [Ru(dmb)2(dtni)](ClO4)2 (2) (dtni = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5, 6-f]-5-nitroisatin) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, and 1H NMR. DNA-binding behaviors of these complexes have been investigated by spectroscopic titration, viscosity measurements, and thermal denaturation. The results indicate that the two complexes interact with calf thymus DNA by intercalation.
  Cui Wang , Yi Liu , Yunzhou Yang , Huiying Wang , Shaoming Gong , Weihu Chen and Daqian He
  Paired box (Pax) protein 3 is a member of the Pax family of transcription factors, plays critical roles in muscle development. Many studies showed that Pax3 gene was a functional candidate gene for production and meat quality. However, the sequence information of goose Pax3 gene remains unknown. In this study, the comparativegenomicstechnology was used to clone the cDNA sequence of Pax3 gene from the breast muscle tissue of Zhedong goose. The gene structures were analyzed by the bioinformatics software and the mRNA expression profile of Pax3 gene in different tissues was measured by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The goose Pax3 full-length coding sequence consisted of 1327 bp and encoded 421 amino acids. Sequence analysis displayed that a splicing variant of goose Pax3 absence of a glutamine residue was also identified. Both of the Pax3-a (inclusion of a glutamine residue) and Pax3-b (exclusion of a glutamine residue) isoforms were predicted contain three conserved domains (a paired domain, an octapeptide region and a homeodomain) and were highly conserved (>90%) relative to the known Pax3 proteins from other species. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis displayed that the deduced goose Pax3 proteins have a close genetic relationship and evolutional distance with the Pax3 proteins in other avian species, especially in ducks. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results revealed Pax3 mRNA was highly expressed in the breast muscle tissue, followed by the lung, leg muscle and brain, little or no expression was observed in heart, liver, spleen, kidney, muscular stomach, intestine and sebum. These findings will help us understand the functions of the Pax3 gene and the molecular breeding in Chinese domestic goose.
  Jianhong Cao , John McNevin , Matthew McSweyn , Yi Liu , James I. Mullins and M. Juliana McElrath
  Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a major role in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. To evade immune pressure, HIV-1 is selected at targeted CTL epitopes, which may consequentially alter viral replication fitness. In our longitudinal investigations of the interplay between T-cell immunity and viral evolution following acute HIV-1 infection, we observed in a treatment-naïve patient the emergence of highly avid, gamma interferon-secreting, CD8+ CTL recognizing an HLA-Cw*0102-restricted epitope, NSPTRREL (NL8). This epitope lies in the p6Pol protein, located in the transframe region of the Gag-Pol polyprotein. Over the course of infection, an unusual viral escape mutation arose within the p6Pol epitope through insertion of a 3-amino-acid repeat, NSPT(SPT)RREL, with a concomitant insertion in the p6Gag late domain, PTAPP(APP). Interestingly, this p6Pol insertion mutation is often selected in viruses with the emergence of antiretroviral drug resistance, while the p6Gag late-domain PTAPP motif binds Tsg101 to permit viral budding. These results are the first to demonstrate viral evasion of immune pressure by amino acid insertions. Moreover, this escape mutation represents a novel mechanism whereby HIV-1 can alter its sequence within both the Gag and Pol proteins with potential functional consequences for viral replication and budding.
  Mia Coetzer , Rebecca Nedellec , Janelle Salkowitz , Sherry McLaughlin , Yi Liu , Laura Heath , James I. Mullins and Donald E. Mosier
  The envelope gene (env) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes rapid divergence from the transmitted sequence and increasing diversification during the prolonged course of chronic infection in humans. In about half of infected individuals or more, env evolution leads to expansion of the use of entry coreceptor from CCR5 alone to CCR5 and CXCR4. The stochastic nature of this coreceptor switch is not well explained by host selective forces that should be relatively constant between infected individuals. Moreover, differences in the incidence of coreceptor switching among different HIV-1 subtypes suggest that properties of the evolving virus population drive the switch. We evaluated the functional properties of sequential env clones from a patient with evidence of coreceptor switching at 5.67 years of infection. We found an abrupt decline in the ability of viruses to use CCR5 for entry at this time, manifested by a 1- to 2-log increase in susceptibility to CCR5 inhibitors and a reduced ability to infect cell lines with low CCR5 expression. There was an abnormally rapid 5.4% divergence in env sequences from 4.10 to 5.76 years of infection, with the V3 and V4/V5 regions showing the greatest divergence and evidence of positive selection. These observations suggest that a decline in the fitness of R5 virus populations may be one driving force that permits the emergence of R5X4 variants.
  Yi Liu , Guozhu Zhan , Xinhui Zhong , Yingfeng Yu and Wenjun Gan
  The role of pi-pi stacking in the molecular self-assembly behaviour, the phase transitions and the fluorescent properties was investigated for coil-rod-coil liquid crystals with two ethylene oxide coil units and aromatic azomethine rod units. Three kinds of rod-coil liquid crystals with different rod units were synthesised and characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarised optical microscopy (POM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), absorption and photoluminescence. With strong pi-pi stacking interaction between coplanar molecules, fibril structure in solution is formed while the fluorescent emission shows a rapid increase of the intensity of short wavelength with the increase of solution concentration. Spherical aggregations in solution are formed with the increase of the twisting of the rod segment plane, which decreases the pi-pi stacking interaction and thus enlarges the intermolecular spacing. Simulation work carried out in Material Studio corresponds well with the experiment results of aggregations and phase transitions.
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