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Articles by Yashpal Singh Malik
Total Records ( 2 ) for Yashpal Singh Malik
  Rakesh Kumar , Shailesh Kumar Patel , B.V. Rami Reddy , Mukesh Bhatt , K. Karthik , Ravi Kumar Gandham , Yashpal Singh Malik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The normal cell has its own homeostatic mechanism. A slight deviation in this mechanism leads firstly to an adaptive response in the form of hypertrophy, atrophy etc. But sometimes when adaptive response exceeds a limit also culminates to cell injury which ultimately leads to cell death. Irreversible form of cell injury leads to cell death in the form of necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy and by other alternative ways of necroptosis, anoikis, entosis and cornification. Necrosis and apoptosis are main mechanisms of cell death in mammalian cells. Necrosis is accidental, uncontrolled and un-programmed cell death which leads to cellular swelling, pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, disruption of cell membrane and inflammation. Apoptosis is a programmed and energy dependent pathophysiological phenomenon leading to cellular shrinkage but no cell membrane rupture and no inflammatory response. Apoptosis can be mediated by extrinsic, intrinsic and perforin/granzyme pathways, leading to activation of execution caspases and finally protein cleavage, cross linking and DNA-fragmentation. Extrinsic pathway involve ligand (FasL, TNFα) and receptors (FasR, TNFR) interaction which bind to adapter proteins Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD) and TNFα Receptor Associated Death Domain (TRADD) with activation of initiator caspases-8. Intrinsic pathway involves cytochrome c release along with pro-apoptotic proteins and inhibits anti-apoptotic proteins, leads to cytochrome c interaction with Apaf-1, thus activation of pro-caspase-9. Overall, cell death have clarified many aspects of this fundamental process and brought to the attention of scientists its role in a large number of different diseases. The present review describes apoptosis and other alternate mechanisms of cell death with biomedical and veterinary perspectives.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Rajneesh Rana , Yashpal Singh Malik , Kuldeep Dhama and Sunil Kumar Joshi
  Microbial activity is considered as an important cause for the manifestation of food spoilage. The detection of chemical signals sharing information between food spoilage bacteria present in food products has initiated a new dimension to formulate an alternate preventive strategy against these spoilage bacteria. Quorum sensing or cell-to-cell communication is employed by a diverse group of bacteria talking to each other through the signaling autoinducer molecules. Based on potential of these molecules, Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) or Quorum Quenching (QQ) compounds can be used as novel biopreservatives which abrupt the virulence of food spoilage microbes to uphold the nutritional quality of packaged and Ready To Eat (RTE) food and food by products. Through the pharmaceutical interventions and molecular mechanisms of intracellular, intercellular and interspecies communication via signaling molecules, preventive strategies can be formulated for production of pathogen free food products. Though identification of species specific signaling pathways is a challenging task for the food microbiologists and pharamacists but proper implementation of QSI molecules would be helpful for the food manufacturers in food processing plants through critical follow ups of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) to maintain the food quality and sound public health. This review draws the attention of researchers involved in dairy microbiology, meat and fish processing industries, packaging channels and neutraceuticals and pharmaceutical industries to explore the library of QS and QSI molecules to put forward and apply them as bio-preservatives for production of safe food products to meet the global food demands of growing world population.
 
 
 
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