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Articles by Yashpal Singh Malik
Total Records ( 6 ) for Yashpal Singh Malik
  Sandeep Deswal , Prasad Minakshi , Koushlesh Ranjan , Santosh Dhillon , Yashpal Singh Malik and Gaya Prasad
  The present study describes characterization of a novel rotavirus (B29) isolated from a buffalo calf causing severe diarrhea. It was confirmed by VP4 and VP7 gene based RT-PCR and in sequence analysis, the VP4 gene showed up to 99.3% sequence identity at nucleotide as well as amino acid levels with P[3] rotavirus genotypes. Similarly, VP7 gene showed a maximum nucleotide and amino acid identity of 99.1 and 98.7%, respectively with G3 genotypes of group A rotavirus (RVA) from several host species and places. The phylogenetic analysis of VP4 gene also revealed close relatedness with other P[3] genotype of rotaviruses from bovine, goat, canine and feline origin. Similarly, VP7 gene revealed close relation with several G3 rotaviruses from bovine and equine origin. The buffalo rotavirus isolate B29 was genotyped as G3P[3]. This is the first report of rotavirus isolate with a G3P[3] genotypic constellation in buffalo calvesfrom this region of India. The detection of buffalo rotavirus of G3P[3] genotypic combination reveals an unexpected epidemiological situation and diversity of bovine rotaviruses in India.
  Dharmender Singh , Yashpal Singh Malik , Kuldeep Sharma and Kuldeep Dhama
  In this study we performed the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus isolates recovered from natural disease outbreaks in goats of central India. A total of 58 clinical samples comprised of blood, nasal/oral/rectal swabs were collected from 3 natural PPR disease outbreaks. The samples were tested by using N protein based MAb based sandwich ELISA (sELISA) and subsequently RT-PCR targeting Fusion (F) and Nucleoprotein (N) genes of PPR virus. The F and N gene specific PCR amplicons were sequenced and assessed for sequence variations with existing and circulating PPR virus strains and vaccine isolates. The results of this study presents PPR virus antigen in 48.27% clinical samples (28/58) using sELISA confirming this outbreak of PPR in goats. Amplification with primers F1/F2 for F gene yielded an expected amplicon of 372 bp and N1/N2 primer sets yielded an amplicon of 463 bp for N gene in reference vaccine virus as well as 28 field samples. In phylogeny, different patterns of branching based on N and F gene sequences and clustering of many of the central Indian PPR virus isolates with isolates from bordering countries was seen. The results confirm that heterogeneous population of PPR virus isolates is circulating in India which moreover emphasize the significance of molecular methods to understand the epidemiology and diversity of PPR virus in the country. The information from such studies will help in achieving the target of controlling and eradicating the disease, especially when the country is planning to launch the control programs in many states after the successful stamping out of the Rinderpest.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Mani Saminathan , Siju Susan Jacob , Mithilesh Singh , K. Karthik , Amarpal , Ruchi Tiwari , Lakshmi Tulasi Sunkara , Yashpal Singh Malik and Raj Kumar Singh
  In veterinary and medical sciences, immunomodulation is an area wherein extensive studies have been conducted to devise methods to improve disease resistance as well as to prevent or control immune disorders of host by optimum regulation of the immune system. Today, most infectious diseases of man and animals are treated and controlled mainly by using broad-spectrum antibiotics and vaccines. However, the antibacterial agents are becoming increasingly ineffective due to rapid emergence of resistant microbial strains. So, there is high requirement for novel and improved alternative therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to manage several diseases which are flaring at alarming pace because of the increase in international traffic, globalization and changing food habbits. Immunomodulation is focused on manipulation of immune system to control the infections and other adverse health effects with precise regulation to avoid any complications while suppressive or potentiating efforts are made to benefit the animal and human health. The main aim of this review is to give a closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory molecules, synthetic and natural, that are capable of modifying the immune responses including conventional and novel immunomodulators like adjuvants, cytokines, hormones, glucocorticoids, host defense peptides, microbial products, toll like receptors, synthetic compounds, probiotics, nutrients, vitamins, minerals, herbs, panchgavya, polysaccharides, helminths, vaccines and others. These immunomodulatory regimens could successfully offer the health industries with the most natural methods for enhancement of disease resistance, boosting vaccination immunity and prevention of various infections, disorders, cancer and stress related diseases. The updated information will be highly useful for scientists, veterinary/medical professionals, pharmaceutical industries, livestock and poultry industry to create a healthier future for people and their companion animals.
  Gopal Krishan , Santosh Kumar Shukla , Prakash Bhatt , Rajesh Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Yashpal Singh Malik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of a polyherbal immunomodulator with additional elements (Immon) against the chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) infection. A total of 60 broiler chicks (day old age) were divided into three groups (n= 20) and vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND). The group I chicks were kept as healthy control while group II and III chicks were infected with 1 ml CIAV (104.5 TCID50/0.1 ml) per chicken intramuscularly. Group III chicks were supplemented with Immon (1 ml / 10 birds in the drinking water) for 21 days. Subsequently, chicks of all three groups were monitored for hematological (Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and DLC) and biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP and uric acid) along with ND antibody titers, organ: body weight ratios, and mean live body weight at on 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day of the experiment. At 7 - 24 days of CIAV infection, the group II birds showed a significantly lower count of erythroid and myeloid cells; increase in enzyme activities and uric acid; decline in mean live body weight and organ: body weight ratios of lymphoid organs, and decline in ND antibody titers. However, at these day intervals the CIAV immunosuppression was less severe in Immon supplemented chicks which showed significantly (P<0.05) higher values of all the test parameters as compared to virus control group II chicks. Thus, the present findings support that Immon is an effective immunomodulating agent in CIAV affected birds, reduces pathogenicity of the virus, ameliorate the depressed immune responses and protects the virus induced adverse effects on growth performances.
  Mohammad Jalil Zorriehzahra , Ruchi Tiwari , Swati Sachan , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Yashpal Singh Malik , Maryam Dadar , Muhammad Sarwar , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  In the current scenario of increasing and emerging drug resistance in various microbial pathogens, traditional antibiotics are becoming less effective and thus globally research has focused on developing alternative therapeutic regimens having efficient germ killing abilities. The leading alternatives include use of phages, prebiotics, probiotics, cytokines, avian egg yolk antibodies, toll like receptors, medical herbs and various other immunomodulatory/immunotherapeutic approaches. Out of these valuable therapies, the application of oral passive immunization using avian egg yolk antibodies (Immunoglobulin Y, IgY) offers promising future avenues for designing and developing novel prophylactic and treatment strategies against infectious diseases in both humans and animals, particularly countering the enteric pathogens. Hitherto studies confirm beneficial applications of IgY antibodies in animals (Calves, lamb and goat, cats and dogs), poultry and humans, however such studies in fish and aquatic animals are comparatively less. The present study presents as overview on avian egg antibodies, their salient features, advantages and limitations and then describes the potential therapeutic applications of IgY for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of fish and aquatic animal species, as well as speculating the future prospects of upcoming IgY technology. Taking into account the valuable prophylactic and therapeutic applications of IgY antibodies, further explorative research in this area could pave way for designing and developing effective pharmaceuticals and treatment options for various infectious diseases of fish/aquaculture animals as well as for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals.
  Naveen Kumar , Yashpal Singh Malik , Kuldeep Sharma , Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan , Sathish Bhadravati Shivachandra and Kuldeep Dhama
  Rotaviruses of group A (RVA) are foremost cause of diarrhoeal diseases in neonates of animals and humans worldwide leading to substantial economic losses. The RVA non-structural protein-4 (NSP-4), a viral enterotoxin, is known to be associated with infantile gastroenteritis/secretory diarrhoea by inducing pathological changes in the mature enterocytes. In this study, the carboxyl terminus of NSP4 protein (73M to 175M) from a bovine RVA was expressed in Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) pLysS cells. The fusion protein (rNSP4ct, ~31 kDa) with hexa-histidine tags on its both termini was purified by affinity chromatography under native condition using Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin. The purified soluble recombinant NSP4ct was confirmed by Western blot. The structural analysis of rNSP4 protein revealed similarity between bovine RVA and human RVA (central tetrameric coiled-coil region) and confirmed that it was composed of mainly alpha helix (85%), lacking the beta strands. The rNSP4ct protein of bovine RVA has the potential of being used in developing diagnostics, assessing the biological activity (enterotoxin property) of rNSP4ct in understanding the pathogenesis in intestinal mucosa which would reveal the role of anti-NSP4 antibodies in protection against rotavirus infection and stimulation of mucosal immunity in animal model.
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