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Articles by Yang Zhao
Total Records ( 6 ) for Yang Zhao
  Jian Wang , Na Zhao , Wei Du , Yang Zhao , Ye Qian and Zuo Jiang
  In this study, we assume a software process model with independent functions as a component. The vaguer and ambiguity aspects of human thinking and reasoning process lead people to utilize fuzzy theories to solve certain problems. The goal of this paper is to employ the method of fuzzy mathematic to classify the components in component library during the process of software evolution. To classify component, the target parameters extracted from components are selected out before the standardization and the clustering is performed after the establishment of fuzzy equivalent matrix. This paper outlines the overall processes of the classification of a component and finally an example is discussed as a case study.
  Xiaojian Gong , Xin Zhou , Chao Zhao , Huaguo Chen and Yang Zhao
  Polygonum perfoliatum is commonly used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders in China. Present studies on the anti-inflammation effect of quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide-methyl ester from Polygonum perfoliatum was evaluated in vivo models of both acute inflammations such as xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide-methyl ester showed a significant dose-related inhibition in xylene-induced ear swelling and acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. These results demonstrate that quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide-methyl ester possesses a potent anti-inflammatory function on acute inflammation. These results also support the claims of traditional Chinese medicine practitioners about the use of Polygonum perfoliatum in the treatment of inflammatory disease.
  Leah Kleinman , Jeffrey Lieberman , Sanjay Dube , Richard Mohs , Yang Zhao , Bruce Kinon , William Carpenter , Philip D. Harvey , Michael F. Green , Richard S.E. Keefe , Lori Frank , Lee Bowman and Dennis A. Revicki
  Existing measures for functional assessment do not adequately address the relationship between cognitive impairment and function. The Schizophrenia Outcomes Functioning Interview (SOFI) was developed to measure community functioning related to cognitive impairment and psychopathology.

Following review of existing measures and discussion with experts, caregivers, and patients, content was generated for four domains: 1) living situation; 2) IADLs; 3) productive activities; and 4) social functioning. The final SOFI was constructed with items informing domain scores, and an interviewer-completed global rating for each domain.

Psychometric characteristics of the SOFI were evaluated in a sample of 104 community residing patients with schizophrenia and their informants. Test–retest reliability was evaluated in a sub-sample of patient–informant dyads using ICC; all values were > 0.70 for both patient-interviews (SOFI-P) and informant-interviews (SOFI-I). Inter-rater reliability ICCs ranged from 0.50 to 0.79 on a different sub-sample. The SOFI demonstrated adequate construct validity based on correlations with the PSP (range 0.58 to 0.76; p < 0.0001) and the QLS (p < 0.001). Some correlations between SOFI and PETiT scores were low to moderate (p < 0.05). Discriminant validity was supported based on SOFI score comparisons for patient groups based on PANSS and BACS scores (p < 0.05); SOFI scores differed between borderline and moderately ill patients as measured by the CGI-S (p < 0.05).

The SOFI expands on existing measures and more comprehensively captures functioning of patients in the real world than other performance-based (proxy) measures. The SOFI has good evidence supporting reliability and construct validity, and may be a useful measure of functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  Rene L. Jacobs , Susanne Lingrell , Yang Zhao , Gordon A. Francis and Dennis E. Vance
  CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) is the key regulatory enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). We previously generated a mouse in which the hepatic CTα gene was specifically inactivated by the cre/loxP procedure. In CTα knock-out mice, plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were markedly lower than in wild type mice (Jacobs, R. L., Devlin, C., Tabas, I., and Vance, D. E. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 47402-47410.) To investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for the decrease in plasma lipoprotein levels, we isolated primary hepatocytes from knock-out and wild type mice. ABCA1 expression was reduced in knock-out hepatocytes and apoAI-dependent cholesterol, and PC efflux was impaired. When knock-out hepatocytes were infected with an adenovirus expressing CTα, apoAI-dependent PC efflux returned partially, whereas cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 levels were not restored to normal levels. Adenoviral expression of CTα did not increase VLDL secretion in knock-out hepatocytes, even though cellular PC levels returned to normal. However, in vivo adenoviral delivery of CTα normalized plasma HDL and VLDL levels in knock-out mice. The observations demonstrate that hepatic PC biosynthesis is a key player in maintaining plasma VLDL and HDL, and further underscores the importance of the liver in HDL formation.
  Yang Zhao , Yan-Qun Chen , Tabetha M. Bonacci , David S. Bredt , Shuyu Li , William R. Bensch , David E. Moller , Mark Kowala , Robert J. Konrad and Guoqing Cao
  Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized through the Kennedy pathway, but more than 50% of PC is remodeled through the Lands cycle, i.e. the deacylation and reacylation of PC to attain the final and proper fatty acids within PC. The reacylation step is catalyzed by lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), and we report here the identification of a novel LPCAT, which we named LPCAT3. LPCAT3 belongs to the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family and encodes a protein of 487 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 56 kDa. Membranes from HEK293 cells overexpressing LPCAT3 showed significantly increased LPCAT activity as assessed by thin layer chromatography analysis with substrate preference toward unsaturated fatty acids. LPCAT3 is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum and is primarily expressed in metabolic tissues including liver, adipose, and pancreas. In a human hepatoma Huh7 cells, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LPCAT3 resulted in virtually complete loss of membrane LPCAT activity, suggesting that LPCAT3 is primarily responsible for hepatic LPCAT activity. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists dose-dependently regulated LPCAT3 in liver in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-dependent fashion, implicating a role of LPCAT3 in lipid homeostasis. Our studies identify a long-sought enzyme that plays a critical role in PC remodeling in metabolic tissues and provide an invaluable tool for future investigations on how PC remodeling may potentially impact glucose and lipid homeostasis.
  Yan Qun Chen , Ming-Shang Kuo , Shuyu Li , Hai H. Bui , David A. Peake , Philip E. Sanders , Stefan J. Thibodeaux , Shaoyou Chu , Yue-Wei Qian , Yang Zhao , David S. Bredt , David E. Moller , Robert J. Konrad , Anne P. Beigneux , Stephen G. Young and Guoqing Cao
  AGPAT6 is a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) family that appears to be important in triglyceride biosynthesis in several tissues, but the precise biochemical function of the enzyme is unknown. In the current study, we show that AGPAT6 is a microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). Membranes from HEK293 cells overexpressing human AGPAT6 had higher levels of GPAT activity. Substrate specificity studies suggested that AGPAT6 was active against both saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. Both glycerol 3-phosphate and fatty acyl-CoA increased the GPAT activity, and the activity was sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl-modifying reagent. Purified AGPAT6 protein possessed GPAT activity but not AGPAT activity. Using [13C7]oleic acid labeling and mass spectrometry, we found that overexpression of AGPAT6 increased both lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid levels in cells. In these studies, total triglyceride and phosphatidylcholine levels were not significantly altered, although there were significant changes in the abundance of specific phosphatidylcholine species. Human AGPAT6 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum and is broadly distributed in tissues. Membranes of mammary epithelial cells from Agpat6-deficient mice exhibited markedly reduced GPAT activity compared with membranes from wild-type mice. Reducing AGPAT6 expression in HEK293 cells through small interfering RNA knockdown suggested that AGPAT6 significantly contributed to HEK293 cellular GPAT activity. Our data indicate that AGPAT6 is a microsomal GPAT, and we propose renaming this enzyme GPAT4.
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