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Articles by Yang Liu
Total Records ( 12 ) for Yang Liu
  J.G. Luhmann , S.A. Ledvina , D. Odstrcil , M.J. Owens , X.-P. Zhao , Yang Liu and Pete Riley
  The problem of modeling solar energetic particle (SEP) events is important to both space weather research and forecasting, and yet it has seen relatively little progress. Most important SEP events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that drive coronal and interplanetary shocks. These shocks can continuously produce accelerated particles from the ambient medium to well beyond 1 AU. This paper describes an effort to model real SEP events using a Center for Integrated Space weather Modeling (CISM) MHD solar wind simulation including a cone model of CMEs to initiate the related shocks. In addition to providing observation-inspired shock geometry and characteristics, this MHD simulation describes the time-dependent observer field line connections to the shock source. As a first approximation, we assume a shock jump-parameterized source strength and spectrum, and that scatter-free transport occurs outside of the shock source, thus emphasizing the role the shock evolution plays in determining the modeled SEP event profile. Three halo CME events on May 12, 1997, November 4, 1997 and December 13, 2006 are used to test the modeling approach. While challenges arise in the identification and characterization of the shocks in the MHD model results, this approach illustrates the importance to SEP event modeling of globally simulating the underlying heliospheric event. The results also suggest the potential utility of such a model for forcasting and for interpretation of separated multipoint measurements such as those expected from the STEREO mission.
  Yunan Yang , Liman Tang , Ling Tong , Yang Liu , Hong Liu and Xiaomin Li
  Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.
  Shaoqian Cai , Yang Liu , Chenhua Zhang , Weixuan Fu , Yuanfang Gong , Xin Lu , Qin Zhang and Zongjun Yin
  This study was aimed to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for haematological traits in pig chromosome 10 and facilitate the cloning of candidate genes underlying the QTLs. Hematological traits are essential parameters for evaluating the health status of animals and play a extremely important role in disease resistance. In this study, three main components, leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits were measured in a composite pig population consisting of 445 pigs of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig) distributed in 16 boar families, before and after vaccination with modified live CSF (classical swine fever) vaccine. A partial genome scan for mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for these traits was performed by genotyping 13 microsatellite markers on chromosome 10. Through a linear mixed model and the permutation for empirical threshold values, 4 significant QTLs on chromosome 10 were identified affecting hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (HGB), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and blood platelet counts (PLT) (p<0.05), respectively. Our results confirms that haematological traits variation differs between the three pig breeds and variations of HCT, HGB, MCV, PLT are associated with the 81~133 cM region in chromosomal 10.
  Yang Liu , Xiaotian Qiu , Jingjing Xu , Fang Hu , Yuhua Li , Hejun Li , Yuanfang Gong and Qin Zhang
  Solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) plays an important role in the innate immune response against intracellular pathogens. To evaluate effect of SLC11A1 gene on immune response capacity in pigs, one SNP in intron1 was demonstrated by PCR-RFLP and sequencing method. Immune response traits include six normal hematology traits (white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, granulocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte), four T lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4¯CD8¯, CD4¯CD8+, CD4+CD8¯, CD4+CD8+) and CSFV antibody titer were measured in three pig breeds (Large White, Landrace and Songliao Black) after vaccinated with classical swine fever live vaccine at the 21st day after birth. The further association analysis between the SNP genotype and immune response traits were conducted. The SNP of SLC11A1 gene had significant effect on level of monocyte (p = 0.010) and CD4¯CD8+ percentage (p = 0.041). The animals with AA genotype had significant higher monocyte and CD4¯CD8+ percentage than that of animals with GG and GA genotype (p<0.05). Present results also suggest that SLC11A1 could be a marker gene for genetic selection of disease susceptibility in pigs.
  Zhang Lu , Yang Liu , Wang Guoye and Zhang Zhongfu
  Real vehicle test is a necessary segment in the procedure of vehicle ESP control system research and development, which can really shows the real effect of vehicle ESP control and is a strong mean and final test method in the research and development. ESP control performances exist some problems such as high dangerous, long period, high cost of the common ESP control performances real vehicle test. Project the two-pitman restriction test system, establish its dynamic system model, Take example for cheryA3 car, base on Matlab/Simulink, establish the two-pitman restriction test system, use the integrating braking and driving ESP control strategy, separately analyze and testify the ESP control performances in independent vehicle system and in the two-pitman restriction test system on three test conditions including neutral steering, under steering, over steering. The study results indicate that the ESP control performances of the vehicle system and the two-pitman restriction test system have remarkable consistency in three test conditions, laying a foundation of the ESP control test research.
  Zongjun Yin , Gui Mei , Yang Liu , Xiangdong Ding and Qin Zhang
  Based on QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 6 in the previous studies, KLF3 gene was chosen as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on milk production traits in a Chinese Holstein population. A SNP (NC_007304:g.13849 G>C) in exon4 of KLF3 gene was demonstrated by directly sequencing of PCR product. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage of each cow were collected by using 305 days lactation records. The further association analysis of the SNP genotype with milk production traits were conducted in a Chinese Holstein population including 1417 cows. We found that there were a SNP associated significantly with milk yield (p = 0.022) and protein yield (p = 0.033). The effect of CC genotype of SNP (NC_007304:g.13849 G>C) was significantly higher than other genotype (p<0.05) in both traits. The study suggested that the KLF3 gene could be used for marker assisted selection program as a molecular marker gene for milk yield, protein yield in Holstein dairy cattle breeding.
  Yang Liu , Guanyu Che , Yixue Sun , Bo Jin , Bin Guo and Xueming Zhang
  Previously researchers reported that Etv4, one of the members of Ets transcription factor Etv5 subfamily, remained at a low level during the normal sexual maturity in testis but a high level in epididymis. Since, the development of spermatogonia and the expression of the regulatory molecules during spermatogenesis could be altered in detrimental environment. In order to examine whether the expression of Etv4 were changed in male reproductive system when cryptorchidism occurred, expressions of Etv4 in testis and epididymis were examined in artificial Unilateral Cryptorchidism Mouse Model. Samples were collected on the 3rd, 6th, 12th and 18th days after cryptorchidism surgery, respectively. The effect of cryptorchidism was confirmed histologically. In cryptorchidism testis, Etv4 mRNA remained steadily at all time points compared with that in the contralateral (p>0.05). However, it decreased significantly in cryptorchidism epididymis compared with its contrapart on the same time point (p<0.01) and its decrease continued along with the time especially on day 12 (p<0.05) and day 18 (p<0.01) compared with day 3 in surgery-lateral epididymis. Collectively, Etv4 might play an essential role for sperm maturation in epididymis.
  Guanyu Che , Yang Liu , Yixue Sun , Bin Guo and Xueming Zhang
  The importance of ETS transcription factor Etv5 on the self-renewal of Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs) has been well documented recently. Previously, the researchers reported that its peer Etv4 remained at a low level during the normal sexual maturity in mouse. It’s well known that the development of spermatogonia and the expression of the regulatory molecules could be changed during the regeneration after damage of the seminiferous epithelia. To test whether the expression of Etv4 was also altered in male reproductiove system after damage, expressions of Etv4 in testis and epididymis were examined in Busulfan-Treated Mouse Model. Mouse testis and epididymis were collected on the 0th, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th and 18th days after busulfan injection, respectively. The effect of busulfan treatment was confirmed histologically. In testis, Etv4 mRNA declined evidently on day 5 and 8 and decreased significantly on day 10 (p<0.05) while it remained a relatively higher level at all time points in epididymis and decreased significantly on day 8 (p<0.05). Collectively, Etv4 might be involved in the regeneration of seminiferous epithelia and the maturation of sperm in epididymis.
  Yang Liu , Qin-Liang Li , Li-Yuan Dong and Bang-Chun Wen
  The traditional clustering analysis method can not automatically determine the optimal clustering number. In this study, we provided a new clustering analysis method which is combination clustering analysis method to solve this problem. Through analyzed 25 kinds of automobile data samples by combination clustering analysis method, the correctness of the analysis result was verified. It showed that combination clustering analysis method could objectively determine the number of clustering first, and then the members of each clustering could be got. It can be found that the result was identical with the objective reality. Through the comparison of each clustering interior standard deviation and overall standard deviation, it also proved the feasibility of this new clustering method.
  Runhua Liu , Lizhong Wang , Chong Chen , Yan Liu , Penghui Zhou , Yin Wang , Xirui Wang , Julie Turnbull , Berge A. Minassian , Yang Liu and Pan Zheng
  Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) represses cell cycle progression by directly phosphorylating cyclin D1 and indirectly regulating cyclin D1 transcription by inhibiting Wnt signaling. Recently, we reported that the Epm2a-encoded laforin is a GSK-3β phosphatase and a tumor suppressor. The cellular mechanism for its tumor suppression remains unknown. Using ex vivo thymocytes and primary embryonic fibroblasts from Epm2a/ mice, we show here a general function of laforin in the cell cycle regulation and repression of cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, targeted mutation of Epm2a increased the phosphorylation of Ser9 on GSK-3β while having no effect on the phosphorylation of Ser21 on GSK-3α. In the GSK-3β+/+ but not the GSK-3β–/– cells, Epm2a small interfering RNA significantly enhanced cell growth. Consistent with an increased level of cyclin D1, the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the levels of Rb-E2F-regulated genes cyclin A, cyclin E, MCM3, and PCNA are also elevated. Inhibitors of GSK-3β selectively increased the cell growth of Epm2a+/+ but not of Epm2a/ cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that laforin is a selective phosphatase for GSK-3β and regulates cell cycle progression by GSK-3β-dependent mechanisms. These data provide a cellular basis for the tumor suppression activity of laforin.
  Ying Yan , Hengli Zhang , Yang Liu , Jing Li , Pengfei Sha , Jingliang He , Huaijin Zhang and Jianguo Xin
  A 20.2 W laser-diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser with a hybrid resonator at 1342 nm was demonstrated. The slope efficiency and optical-to-optical conversation efficiency were 30% and 23%, respectively. At output power of 16 W, the M2 factor in stable direction was 2.3, and in the unstable direction was 1.2.
  Milica Momcilovic , Surtaj H. Iram , Yang Liu and Marian Carlson
  The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family is required for adaptation to metabolic stress and energy homeostasis. The γ subunit of AMPK binds AMP and ATP, and mutations that affect binding cause human disease. We have here addressed the role of the Snf4 (γ) subunit in regulating SNF1 protein kinase in response to glucose availability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies of mutant cells lacking Snf4 suggested that Snf4 counteracts autoinhibition by the C-terminal sequence of the Snf1 catalytic subunit but is dispensable for glucose regulation, and AMP does not activate SNF1 in vitro. We first introduced substitutions at sites that, in AMPK, contribute to nucleotide binding and regulation. Mutations at several sites relieved glucose inhibition of SNF1, as judged by catalytic activity, phosphorylation of the activation-loop Thr-210, and growth assays, although analogs of the severe human mutations R531G/Q had little effect. We further showed that alterations of Snf4 residues that interact with the glycogen-binding domain (GBD) of the β subunit strongly relieved glucose inhibition. Finally, substitutions in the GBD of the Gal83 β subunit that are predicted to disrupt interactions with Snf4 and also complete deletion of the GBD similarly relieved glucose inhibition of SNF1. Analysis of mutant cells lacking glycogen synthase showed that regulation of SNF1 is normal in the absence of glycogen. These findings reveal novel roles for Snf4 and the GBD in regulation of SNF1.

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