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Articles by Yan Liang
Total Records ( 3 ) for Yan Liang
  Yan Liang , Bin Fang , Jiye Qian , Lin Chen , Chunyan Li and Ying Liu

The identification of non-cell objects in biological images is not a trivial task largely due to the difficulty in describing their characteristics in recognition systems. In order to better reduce the false positive rate caused by the presence of non-cell particles, we propose a novel approach using a local jet context features scheme combined with a two-tier object classification system. The newly proposed feature scheme, namely local jet context feature, integrates part of global features with the “local jet” features. The scheme aims to effectively describe the particle characteristics that are invariant to shift and rotation, and hence help to retain the critical shape information. The proposed two-tier particle classification strategy consists of a pre-recognition stage first and later a further filtering phase. Using the local jet context features coupled with a multi-class SVM classifier, the pre-recognition stage intends to assign the particles to their corresponding classes as many as possible. To further reduce the false positive particles, next a decision tree classifier based on shape-centered features is applied. Our experimental study shows that through the proposed two-tier classification strategy, we are able to achieve 85% of identification accuracy and 80% of F1 value in urinary particle recognition. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed local jet context features are capable to discriminate particles in terms of shape and texture characteristics. Overall, the two-tier classification stage is found to be effective in reducing the false positive rate caused by non-cell particles.

  Yiren Gu , Yan Liang , Xiaohui Chen , Xuemei Yang , Xuan Tao , Zhiping He and Xuebin Lv
  Caveolins have important roles in the organization of detergent-insoluble lipid rafts, trafficking of cholesterol and anchoring of signaling molecules. In this study, the expression patterns of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), Caveolin-2 (Cav-2) and Caveolin 3 (Cav-3) genes were investigated in the longissimus dorsi muscle and back subcutaneous fat of Berkshire and Yacha pigs at the age of 6 months using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that Cav-1 and -2 mRNA were abundantly expressed in back subcutaneous fat. The expression patterns of Cav-1 and -2 were similar in the two pig breeds. The expression levels in the back subcutaneous fat were significantly higher in Yacha pigs than in Berkshire pigs (p<0.01). Cav-3 was expressed predominantly in the longissimus dorsi muscle and the Berkshire pig had higher Cav-3 mRNA levels compared with the Yacha pig (p<0.01). These results indicate that the mRNAs of Cav family genes exhibit specific expression changes between Berkshire and Yacha pigs. The data contributes to the elucidation of the relationship between meat quality and Cav family genes expression and provides a basis for further study on the mutual regulation mechanism of Cav family genes.
  Janice Nickells , Maria Cannella , Deborah A. Droll , Yan Liang , William S. M. Wold and Thomas J. Chambers
  A molecular clone of yellow fever virus (YFV) strain 17D was used to identify critical determinants of mouse neuroinvasiveness previously localized to domain III of the neuroadapted SPYF-MN virus envelope protein. Three candidate virulence substitutions (305F>V, 326K>E, and 380R>T) were individually evaluated for their roles in this phenotype in a SCID mouse model. The virus containing a glutamic acid residue at position 326 of the envelope protein (326E) caused rapidly lethal encephalitis, with a mortality rate and average survival time resembling those of the parental SPYF-MN virus. Determinants at positions 380 (380T) and 305 (305V) did not independently affect neuroinvasiveness. Testing a panel of viruses with various amino acid substitutions at position 326 revealed that attenuation of neuroinvasiveness required a positively charged residue (lysine or arginine) at this position. Molecular-modeling studies suggest that residues 326 and 380 contribute to charge clusters on the lateral surface of domain III that constitute putative heparin binding sites, as confirmed by studies of heparin inhibition of plaque formation. The neuroinvasiveness of YFVs in the SCID model correlated inversely with sensitivity to heparin. These findings establish that residue 326 in domain III of the E protein is a critical determinant of YFV neuroinvasiveness in the SCID mouse model. Together with modeling of domain III from virulent YFV strains, the data suggest that heparin binding activity involving lysine at position 326 may be a modulator of YFV virulence phenotypes.
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