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Articles by Y. Wang
Total Records ( 24 ) for Y. Wang
  H. F. Wang , W. R. Yang , H. W. Yang , Y. Wang , Z. B. Yang , S. Z. Jiang and G. G. Zhang
  An experiment was conducted using 720 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of Astragalus membranaceus root powder (AMP), Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and antioxidant enzymes, and metabolites of blood and liver in broiler chickens. The six dietary treatments included a control that was a corn-soybean meal basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg antibiotic; 350 mg/kg APS; or 5000, 10,000, or 15,000 mg/kg diet of AMP. Supplementation of 10,000 mg/kg AMP increased average daily gain and feed conversion rate of broilers in grower period (22-42 d) and over the entire experiment compared to basic diet. Responses of antioxidant status to dietary APS and AMP varied depending on the age of the broilers. Beneficial effects of AMP on growth and feed utilization of broilers could be obtained by inclusion of AMP at the rate of 10,000 mg/kg diet.
  X Yan , S Walayat , Q Shi , J Zheng and Y. Wang

Though accumulated evidence has demonstrated the transformation capacity of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 protein E7, the underlying mechanism is still arguable. Developing a protein transduction domain (PTD)-linked E7 molecule is a suitable strategy for assessing the biological functions of the protein. In the present study, HPV18 E7 protein fused to an N-terminal PTD was expressed in the form of glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli with pGEX-4T-3 vector. After glutathione-Sepharose 4B bead affinity purification, immunoblot identification and thrombin cleavage, the PTD-18E7 protein showed structural and functional activity in that it potently transduced the cells and localized into their nuclei. The PTD-18E7 protein transduced the NIH3T3 cells in 30 min and remained stable for at least 24 h. In addition, the PTD-18E7 protein interacted with retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and caused pRB degradation in the transduced NIH3T3 cells. In contrast to the pRB level, p27 protein level was elevated in the transduced NIH3T3 cells. The PTD-18E7 protein gives us a new tool to study the biological functions of the HPV E7 protein.

  H. Sun , W.R. Yang , Z.B. Yang , Y. Wang , S.Z. Jiang and G.G. Zhang
    Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met) sparing effect of Betaine (BET) has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21) and grower rations (d 22-42) for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control); diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter) or 300 (grower) mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter) or 500 (grower) mg kg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates) per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of broilers of other treatments. Supplementation of BET at the level of replacing 25% of total Met increased (p<0.05) breast meat yield and protein content of breast meat and liver, but decreased (p<0.05) abdominal fat yield and ether extract content of liver. Conclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.
  X.Y. LIU , Y. WANG and W.X. JI
  This study examined the effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, feed utilization and body composition of Asian catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus reared in cages. Eight test diets were formulated at four protein (340, 380, 420 and 460 g kg−1 crude protein) and two lipid (50 and 90 g kg−1 crude lipid) levels. Fish (initial weight 4.7 g fish−1) were fed the test diets for 8 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), contents of crude protein, lipid and energy in whole body were dependent on both dietary protein and lipid levels, while specific growth rate (SGR), hepatosomatic index and body moisture content were dependent on dietary lipid level. The WG and SGR increased with the increase in either dietary protein level (at the same lipid level) or lipid level (at the same protein level). The FI and FCR decreased with the increase in dietary protein level (at the same lipid level) or lipid level (at the same protein level). Protein sparing action occurred in case dietary lipid level increased. Fish fed the diet containing 453 g kg−1 crude protein and 86 g kg−1 lipid had the highest WG and SGR, but the lowest FI and FCR, among the diet treatments. There were no significant differences in the protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE) among the diet treatments, although PRE and ERE were relatively high in fish fed the diet containing 453 g kg−1 crude protein and 86 g kg−1 lipid. At the end of the feeding trial, body protein content increased, while body lipid content decreased, with the increase in dietary protein content at the same lipid level. Our results suggest that dietary levels of 450 g kg−1 crude protein and 90 g kg−1 lipid are adequate to support fast growth of P. hypophthalmus reared in cages.
  X. Q Xia , M McClelland , S Porwollik , W Song , X Cong and Y. Wang

Motivation: Cross-platform microarray analysis is an increasingly important research tool, but researchers still lack open source tools for storing, integrating and analyzing large amounts of microarray data obtained from different array platforms.

Results: An open source integrated microarray database and analysis suite, WebArrayDB (, has been developed that features convenient uploading of data for storage in a MIAME (Minimal Information about a Microarray Experiment) compliant fashion, and allows data to be mined with a large variety of R-based tools, including data analysis across multiple platforms. Different methods for probe alignment, normalization and statistical analysis are included to account for systematic bias. Student's t-test, moderated t-tests, non-parametric tests and analysis of variance or covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) are among the choices of algorithms for differential analysis of data. Users also have the flexibility to define new factors and create new analysis models to fit complex experimental designs. All data can be queried or browsed through a web browser. The computations can be performed in parallel on symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems or Linux clusters.

  C. Pan , W. Yang , J.P. Barona , Y. Wang , M. Niggli , P. P. Mohideens , Y. Wangs and J.E. Foleys
  AimsTo compare the efficacy and tolerability of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, with the alpha glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, in drug-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes. MethodsThis multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm study compared the efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin (100 mg daily, given as 50 mg twice daily, n = 441) and acarbose (up to 300 mg daily, given as three equally divided doses, n = 220) during 24-week treatment in drug-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes. ResultsMonotherapy with vildagliptin or acarbose decreased glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (baseline ≈ 8.6%) to a similar extent during 24-week treatment. The adjusted mean change from baseline to end-point (AMΔ) in HbA1c was −1.4 ± 0.1% and −1.3 ± 0.1% in patients receiving vildagliptin and acarbose, respectively, meeting the statistical criterion for non-inferiority (upper limit of 95% confidence interval for between-treatment difference ≤ 0.4%). The decrease in fasting plasma glucose was similar with acarbose (−1.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l) and vildagliptin (−1.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l). Body weight did not change in vildagliptin-treated patients (−0.4 ± 0.1 kg) but decreased in acarbose-treated patients (−1.7 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.001 vs. vildagliptin). The proportion of patients experiencing any adverse event (AE) was 35% vs. 51% in patients receiving vildagliptin or acarbose, respectively; gastrointestinal AEs were significantly more frequent with acarbose (25.5%) than vildagliptin (12.3%, P < 0.001). No hypoglycaemia was reported for either group. ConclusionsVildagliptin is effective and well tolerated in patients with Type 2 diabetes, demonstrating similar glycaemic reductions to acarbose, but with better tolerability.
  Y. Wang , A. O. Y. Luk , R. C. W. Ma , W. Y. So , C. H. T. Tam , M. C. Y. Ng , X. Yang , L. Baum , V. Lam , P. C. Y. Tong and J. C. N. Chan

Aims To examine the independent and joint effects of multiple genetic variants on a cardiac end-point in an 8-year prospective study of a Chinese diabetic cohort.

Methods Seventy-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 53 candidate genes for inflammation, thrombosis, vascular tone regulation and lipid metabolism were genotyped in 1297 Chinese patients with no prior history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure at baseline. Cardiac end-point was defined by the occurrence of CHD and/or heart failure.

Results In Cox regression model, after adjustment for baseline confounding variables including age, sex, smoking status, duration of diabetes, glycaemic control, lipid levels, waist circumference, blood pressure, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate, genetic variants, including Ala/Ala of SCYA11 (eotaxin) Ala23Thr, Cys/Cys or Cys/Ser of PON2 (paraoxonase2) Ser311Cys and Arg/Arg of ADRB33-adrenergic receptor) Trp64Arg, were independently associated with incident cardiac end-point, with respective hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.70 (1.10–2.61, P=0.037), 1.42 (1.08–1.88, P=0.013) and 3.84 (1.18–12.50, P=0.025). Analysis of the joint effect of the risk alleles showed significant increased risk of the cardiac end-point with increasing number of risk alleles (P<0.001). The adjusted risk for the cardiac end-point was 4.11 (P=0.002) for patients carrying four risk alleles compared with those carrying one or no risk allele.

Conclusions The independent risk conferred by genetic variants encoding pathways such as inflammation and lipid metabolism, not adequately reflected by conventional biomarkers, may identify high-risk individuals for intensified control of modifiable risk factors.

  R. Mangat , J. W. Su , J. E. Lambert , M. T. Clandinin , Y. Wang , R. R. Uwiera , J. M. Forbes , D. F. Vine , M. E. Cooper , J. C. Mamo and S. D. Proctor
  Aims: To determine fasting and postprandial metabolism of apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) remnant lipoproteins in subjects with Type 1 diabetes and the relationship to progressive cardiovascular disease, and to investigate the impact of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol accumulation associated with arterial wall biglycan using a rodent model of Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Normolipidaemic subjects (n = 9) with long-standing Type 1 diabetes (and advanced cardiovascular disease) and seven healthy control subjects were studied. Fasting and postprandial apoB48 concentration was determined following a sequential meal challenge. A rodent model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used to investigate the ex vivo retention of fluorescent-conjugated remnants. Binding of remnant lipoproteins to human recombinant biglycan was assessed in vitro. Results: A significantly higher concentration of fasting plasma apoB48 remnants was observed in patients with Type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects. Patients with Type 1 diabetes exhibited a greater total plasma apoB48 area under the curve (AUC) and an increased incremental AUC following a second sequential meal compared with control subjects. The arterial retention of remnants ex vivo and associated cholesterol was increased sevenfold in Type 1 diabetes rats relative to controls. Remnants were shown to bind with significant affinity to human biglycan in vitro and a further 2.3-fold increased binding capacity was observed with glycated biglycan. Remnants were shown to colocalize with both arterial biglycan and glycated matrix proteins in the Type 1 diabetes rodent model. Conclusion: Impaired metabolism of remnant lipoproteins associated with enhanced binding to proteoglycans appears to contribute to the arterial cholesterol deposition in Type 1 diabetes. Our findings support the hypothesis that impaired remnant metabolism may contribute to accelerated progression of atherosclerosis in the hyperglycaemic and insulin-deficient state.
  F. Xu , Y. Wang , R. S. Ware , L. Ah Tse , D. W. Dunstan , Y. Liang , Z. Wang , X. Hong and N. Owen
  Aims  To investigate the joint influence of physical activity and family history of diabetes on the subsequent risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults.

Methods  A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted among adults aged 35 years and older during 2004-2007 in Nanjing, China. Four communities (three urban and one rural) were randomly selected from 11 urban districts and two rural counties. Hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes were defined using World Health Organization criteria based on fasting blood glucose concentration and physicians' diagnosis, respectively. Physical activity, parental diabetes history, and other important covariates were assessed at baseline and in the third-year follow-up survey.

Results  At study conclusion data were collected from 3031 participants (follow-up rate 81.3%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes was 6.2% and 2.4%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, compared with those with positive family history and insufficient physical activity, the adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI) of developing hyperglycaemia was 0.19 (0.02, 1.51) for participants with sufficient physical activity and a positive family history; 0.55 (0.31, 0.97) for participants with insufficient physical activity and a negative family history; and 0.36 (0.19, 0.70) for participants with sufficient physical activity but a negative family history. Participants who had a negative family history and insufficient physical activity were also less likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (RRR = 0.28; 0.14, 0.54), and participants with a negative family history and sufficient physical activity were the least likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (0.23; 0.10, 0.56).

Conclusions  Sufficient physical activity and negative family history of diabetes may jointly reduce the risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults.

  Q. Fang , S. Chen , Y. Wang , S. Jiang , R. Zhang , C. Hu , C. Wang , F. Liu , K. Xiang and W. Jia
  Aims  Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Mutations in the HNF-1α gene cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young Type 3. However, the mechanism leading to this disease has not been completely ascertained. Previously, we found a novel mutation in the regulatory element of the human HNF-1α gene in two Chinese diabetes pedigrees. The nucleotide at position -128 T was substituted by G (nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G). In this study, we analysed the functional defect of nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G in HNF-1α transcription activity.

Methods  Luciferase reporter gene assays were carried out to examine the functional characteristics of this mutant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to confirm the binding of nuclear proteins to oligonucleotides.

Results  The variant construct (nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G) had a 1.65-fold increase in promoter activity compared with that of the wild-type construct in HepG2 cells and a 1.33-fold increase in MIN6 cells, respectively. The variant resided at a FOXA/HNF-3 binding site identified by a series of competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assays and antibody supershift analyses. The assays showed a differential binding affinity in the wild-type and the nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G mutant fragments by FOXA/HNF-3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that FOXA/HNF-3 bound to this region in vivo. One nucleotide substitution in the FOXA/HNF-3 site in the human HNF-1α regulatory element caused an increase of HNF-1α transcriptional activity.

Conclusions  Our data suggested that this substitution in the promoter region affects DNA-protein interaction and HNF-1α gene transcription. The mutant may contribute to the development of diabetes in these two nt-128 T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G pedigrees of Chinese.

  J. K. Y. Lam , Y. Wang , S. W. M. Shiu , Y. Wong , D. J. Betteridge and K. C. B. Tan


The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. RAGE transcript splicing generates a number of isoforms, including a full-length membrane-bound receptor and a soluble isoform, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Soluble forms of the receptor (sRAGE) can also be formed by ectodomain shedding of the membrane-associated receptor. We have evaluated serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE in Chinese patients with Type 1 diabetes and investigated the effect of insulin on the generation of esRAGE and sRAGE in vitro.


Serum sRAGE and esRAGE were measured by ELISA. The in vitro effect of insulin was investigated by incubating THP-1 macrophages with insulin and RAGE isoforms in cell lysate and conditioned media determined.


In patients with diabetes, both serum esRAGE and sRAGE were significantly higher than in age-matched healthy subjects without diabetes. In vitro, insulin increased esRAGE and total RAGE isoform expression in cell lysate on a western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed an increase in esRAGE and full-length RAGE mRNA. This was accompanied by an increase in esRAGE and sRAGE in cell conditioned media. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with a general metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 significantly reduced the production of sRAGE, suggesting that insulin also increased the cleavage of full-length cell surface RAGE to form sRAGE.


Chinese patients with Type 1 diabetes have higher serum levels of esRAGE and sRAGE. In vitro, insulin not only increases both full-length RAGE and esRAGE expression, but can also stimulate the shedding of sRAGE from the membrane-bound receptor.

  Y. Wang , T. Liang , X. Yang and D. Zhang
  In this study, we develop and analyze the Cluster Based Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Large Scale Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (CBLARHM), a low-complexity routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). CBLARHM runs on top of an adaptive cluster cover of the network, which can be created and maintained using, for instance, the weight-based distributed algorithm. The weighted clustering algorithm we proposed takes into consideration node degree difference, battery power, average link stability and average dependency probability of mobile nodes. The hierarchical structure stabilizes the end-to-end communication paths and improves the networks scalability such that the routing overhead does not become tremendous in large scale MANET. Furthermore, it is fascinating and important to investigate that how to control the total number of nodes involved in a routing establishment process so as to improve the network layer performance of MANET. CBLARHM is to use geographical location information provided by Global Position System (GPS) to assist routing. The location information of destination node is used to predict a smaller rectangle, isosceles triangle, or circle request zone, which is selected according to the relative location of the source and the destination, that covers the estimated region the destination may locates. Thus, instead of searching the route in the entire network blindly, CBLARHM confines the route searching space into a much smaller estimated range. Simulation results have shown that CBLARHM outperforms other protocols significantly in route setup time, routing overhead, mean delay and packet collision and simultaneously maintains low average end-to-end delay, high success delivery ratio, low control overhead, as well as low route discovery frequency.
  Y. Wang , T .L.X. Yang and D. Zhang
  Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) into clusters enables the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes. However, the problem of unbalanced energy consumption exists and it is tightly bound to the role and to the location of a particular node in the network. The so-called hot spot occurs when cluster heads closer to the sink node are burdened with heavier relay traffic and tend to die much faster. To mitigate or avoid the problem, the Partition Energy Balanced and Efficient Clustering Scheme (PEBECS) has been proposed, which divides the entire WSN into several equal partitions reasonably and groups the nodes into clusters of unequal sizes. Cluster heads in these partitions closer to the sink node have smaller cluster sizes than those farther, thus they can preserve some energy for the inter-cluster communications. Further, the cluster heads are elected by using a node-weight heuristic algorithm, where the node`s residual energy, the node`s degree difference and the relative location in WSN are considered, such that more balanced load is achieved. Simulation results show that PEBECS outperforms significantly in optimizing the cluster heads` energy consumption, balancing the nodes` energy consumption, prolonging the network lifetime and improving the network scalability.
  S. Yu , D. Yan , Y. Dong , H. Tian , Y. Wang and X. Yu
  Presently, stereo matching algorithms are almost in purpose of pursuing high matching precision, the whole time spent in algorithms are too long. In this study, we proposed a stereo matching algorithm based on aligning genomic sequence, according to the comparability on the theory of aligning genomic sequences and stereo matching algorithm. Firstly, pixels in each epipolar on stereo image were transformed into the form of genomic sequences and then used calculation method of getting score matrix by comparison of genomic sequence to establish two-dimensional disparity space images. At last, we finally get disparity using searching optimization strategy in aligning genomic sequences to do global optimization. The experimental results show that the whole time of this method is greatly reduced and matching quality is still good.
  J.J. Yan , Y. Wang and H. Cheng
  The fusion and transmission of information in decision level are helpful for battle decisions. The existing research was focused on the underlying information fusion and lack of the behavior analysis between participants. So in this study, Bayesian game is introduced to situation assessment to analyze the commander’s subjective thinking process in the situation assessment. Based on the deep analysis of the content and function of situation assessment, a kind of high-level framework of situation assessment is put up and the equilibrium state is got. The validity of the method is verified by a simulation. This study has great significance in the developing the battlefield situation assessment theory.
  W.X. Tian , N. Sun , G.B. Ning , D.J. Zhang , J. Feng , T.X. Lv , Y. Wang , H.M. Wang , X.H. Wang and F. Li
  This study was designed to investigate the influence of Gallid herpesvirus 2 Marek's Disease challenge virus and different inoculated routes of attenuated vaccine virus CVI988/Rispens on immune adhesion of erythrocytes in chickens. One day old chicks were randomly divided into a control group (C), an experimental group challenged with Jing-1 challenge strain (V), a second and third experimental group individually injected intra-abdominally (IA) or subcutaneously (SC) with vaccine strain, CVI988/Rispens. The erythrocyte immune adhesion was evaluated with yeast rosette-forming tests of red blood cell complement receptor type 1 (RBC-CR1) and red blood cell immune complex (RBC-IC). It was found that chickens from group V had fewer erythrocytes. During this time, the rate of RBC-IC rosette formation was higher in group V except on days 3 and 20. While the rate of RBC-CR1 rosette formation was lower in group V except on the 26th day when the number of RBC-CR1 rosettes was extremely higher. The rate of RBC-CR1 rosette formation and RBCs count was higher in group IA than that of SC. The results suggest that challenge virus lead to immune suppression, a decline in the immune adhesion of RBCs followed by a rebound during the later stages of infection; effects on RBC immunity were increased after inoculate attenuated vaccines strains; IA vaccination route may enhance the immune adhesion of RBCs comparing with SC route; and an improvement in the RBC immunity adhesion during the later stages of infection may have resulted from a compensatory immune response to immune organ atrophy and the decrease of RBCs.
  L. Wu , N. He , Y. Wang and X. Han
  Land-use change can lead to changes in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage. This study aimed to determine the impact of long-term grazing exclusion (GE) on soil organic C and total N (TN) storage in the Leymus chinensis grasslands of northern China and to estimate the dynamics of recovery after GE. We investigated the aboveground biomass and soil organic C and TN storage in six contiguous plots along a GE chronosequence comprising free grazing, 3-yr GE, 8-yr GE, 20-yr GE, 24-yr GE, and 28-yr GE. Grazing exclusion for two decades increased the soil C and N storage by 35.7 and 14.6%, respectively, in the 0- to 40-cm soil layer. The aboveground net primary productivity and soil C and N storage were the highest with 24-yr GE and the lowest with free grazing. The storage increased logarithmically with the duration of GE; after an initial rapid increase after the introduction of GE, the storage attained equilibrium after 20 yr. A logarithmic regression analysis revealed 86.8 and 87.1% variation in the soil C storage and 74.2 and 80.7% variation in the soil N storage in the 0- to 10-cm and 0- to 40-cm soil layers, respectively. Based on these results, we suggest that two decades of GE would restore the L. chinensis grasslands from being lightly degraded to a stable productive condition with good soil C and N storage capacity. Our results demonstrated that by implementing GE, the temperate grasslands of northern China could facilitate significant C and N storage on decade scales in the context of mitigating global climate change.
  C Wang , D. C Popescu , C Wu , J Zhu , W Macklin and Y. Wang

We describe a novel fluorescent dye, 3-(4-aminophenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (termed case myelin compound or CMC), that can be used for in situ fluorescent imaging of myelin in the vertebrate nervous system. When administered via intravenous injection into the tail vein, CMC selectively stained large bundles of myelinated fibers in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS, CMC readily entered the brain and selectively localized in myelinated regions such as the corpus callosum and cerebellum. CMC also selectively stained myelinated nerves in the PNS. The staining patterns of CMC in a hypermyelinated mouse model were consistent with immunohistochemical staining. Similar to immunohistochemical staining, CMC selectively bound to myelin sheaths present in the white matter tracts. Unlike CMC, conventional antibody staining for myelin basic protein also stained oligodendrocyte cytoplasm in the striatum as well as granule layers in the cerebellum. In vivo application of CMC was also demonstrated by fluorescence imaging of myelinated nerves in the PNS. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:611–621, 2010)

  Y. Wang , Y. He , H. Zhang , J. Schroder , C. Li and D. Zhou
  Phosphate mobilization by organic acids has been shown to be soil type dependent and controlled by the soil`s intrinsic P status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity and mechanisms of three organic acids in the mobilization of phosphate from an upland clay loam Ultisol that had received different long-term fertilizer treatments. Soil samples were incubated at 25 ± 1°C and 40% moisture content for 3 wk with citric, tartaric, or oxalic acid at 1.0 mmol kg–1 of soil. Soil pH, inorganic P fractions, and plant-available P (Olsen P) were analyzed after incubation. The results indicated that Olsen P and the loosely bound P extracted with 1.0 mol L–1 NH4Cl (NH4Cl-P) were significantly increased by the treatment of the three organic acids, and Fe phosphate (Fe-P), occluded phosphate (Oc-P), and Ca phosphate (Ca-P) were mobilized and released to various degrees as well. The order of increased mobilization of P by the organic acids was citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid. These three organic acids have the potential to increase the availability of P in soil but need to be evaluated at the field scale.
  C. K Kamga , S. X Zhang and Y. Wang

Glutathione transport into mitochondria is mediated by oxoglutarate (OGC) and dicarboxylate carrier (DIC) in the kidney and liver. However, transport mechanisms in brain mitochondria are unknown. We found that both carriers were expressed in the brain. Using cortical mitochondria incubated with physiological levels of glutathione, we found that butylmalonate, a DIC inhibitor, reduced mitochondrial glutathione to levels similar to those seen in mitochondria incubated without extramitochondrial glutathione (59% of control). In contrast, phenylsuccinate, an OGC inhibitor, had no effect (97% of control). Additional experiments with DIC and OGC short hairpin RNA in neuronal-like PC12 cells resulted in similar findings. Significantly, DIC inhibition resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in and H2O2 release from mitochondria. It also led to decreased membrane potential, increased basal respiration rates, and decreased phosphorus-to-oxygen (P/O) ratios, especially when electron transport was initiated from complex I. Accordingly, we found that DIC inhibition impaired complex I activity, but not those for complexes II and III. This impairment was not associated with dislodgment of complex subunits. These results suggest that DIC is the main glutathione transporter in cortical mitochondria and that DIC-mediated glutathione transport is essential for these mitochondria to maintain ROS homeostasis and normal respiratory functions.

  S Kisely , L. A Campbell and Y. Wang


Most data on the quality of vascular care for individuals with psychiatric conditions come from countries without universal healthcare.


To investigate the treatment of people with psychosis admitted for ischaemic heart disease or stroke under universal healthcare.


A population-based study of administrative data comparing Canadians with and without a history of schizophrenia or related psychosis (n = 65 039).


Of 49 248 admissions for ischaemic heart disease, 1285 had a history of psychosis. Despite a higher 1-year mortality, they were less likely to receive guideline-consistent treatment: e.g. coronary artery bypass grafting (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25–0.48), beta-blockers (adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.95) and statins (adjusted OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.41–0.63). Of 15 791 admissions for stroke, 594 had a history of psychosis. Despite higher 1-year mortality rates, they were less likely to receive cerebrovascular arteriography or warfarin.


People with a history of psychosis do not receive equitable levels of vascular care under universal healthcare.

  D.Y. Wang , P. Yun , Y. Wang , H.L.W. Chan and C.L. Choy
  Epitaxial Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 thin films were grown on (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (001) single-crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition at 700 °C in different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 6.7 Pa to 40.0 Pa. A strong correlation is observed between the structure and dielectric properties for the Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 thin films. The tetragonal distortion (ratio of in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameter, a/c) of the films depends on the oxygen partial pressures. a/c varies from 0.989 at 6.7 Pa to 1.010 at 40.0 Pa, indicating the in-plain strain changes from compressive to tensile. The in-plain strain (either compressive or tensile) shifts the Curie temperature of the Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 thin films dramatically. Surface morphology and dielectric properties of Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 thin films have a strong dependence of the oxygen partial pressure. The film grown 26.7 Pa, which corresponds to a moderate in-plain tensile strain and a Curie temperature of ~ 30 °C, shows the largest relative permittivity, tunability and the best figure of merit in a broad frequency range (1 kHz–500 MHz), which may be a promising candidate for room-temperature microwave device applications.
  G. Lan , L. Peng , X. Xie , F. Peng , Y. Wang and S. Yu
  Bone loss is a common complication among renal transplant patients. Some studies have shown that alendronate may be effective to treat bone loss in these patients. In this study, we have reported our experience with administration of alendronate to treat bone loss in renal transplanted patients.

Methods: The 46 kidney transplant recipients with bone loss were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I was treated with calcium and calcitriol, and group II with calcium, calcitriol, and alendronate. We examined bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical indicators of both groups. All patients received cyclosporine and prednisone treatment.

Results: There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, gender, immunosuppression, time since transplantation, 25(OH)D3, or intact parathyroid hormone levels at study commencement. The BMD of the femoral neck was significantly increased (P < .05), and the serum type I collagen-cross-linked N telopeptide (NTx) dramatically (P < .05) decreased in posttransplantation group II recipients treated with calcium, calcitriol, and alendronate. There were also significant differences in BMD and serum NTx between recipients treated with versus without alendronate (P < .05).

Conclusion: At least in the short term, alendronate is a effective inhibitor for the treatment of bone loss in renal transplantation patients.
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