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Articles by Y. Ishikawa
Total Records ( 2 ) for Y. Ishikawa
  E Baljinnyam , K Iwatsubo , R Kurotani , X Wang , C Ulucan , M Iwatsubo , D Lagunoff and Y. Ishikawa

Melanoma, the most malignant form of human skin cancer, has a poor prognosis due to its strong metastatic ability. It was recently demonstrated that Epac, an effector molecule of cAMP, is involved in regulating cell migration; however, the role of Epac in melanoma cell migration remains unclear. We thus examined whether Epac regulates cell migration and metastasis of melanoma. Epac activation, by either specific agonist or overexpression of Epac, increased melanoma cell migration. Deletion of endogenous Epac with small interfering RNA decreased basal melanoma cell migration. These data suggested a major role of Epac in melanoma cell migration. Epac-induced cell migration was mediated by translocation of syndecan-2, a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, to lipid rafts. This syndecan-2 translocation was regulated by tubulin polymerization via the Epac/phosphoinositol-3 kinase pathway. Epac-induced cell migration was also regulated by the production of heparan sulfate, a major extracellular matrix. Epac-induced heparan sulfate production was attributable to the increased expression of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1) accompanied by an increased NDST-1 translation rate. Finally, Epac overexpression enhanced lung colonization of melanoma cells in mice. Taken together, these data indicate that Epac regulates melanoma cell migration/metastasis mostly via syndecan-2 translocation and heparan sulfate production.

  K Otsu , Y Toya , J Oshikawa , R Kurotani , T Yazawa , M Sato , U Yokoyama , S Umemura , S Minamisawa , S Okumura and Y. Ishikawa

Caveolin, a member of the membrane-anchoring protein family, accumulates various growth receptors in caveolae and inhibits their function. Upregulation of caveolin attenuates cellular proliferation and growth. However, the role of caveolin in regulating insulin signals remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that caveolin potently enhances insulin receptor (IR) signaling when overexpressed in the liver in vivo. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to overexpress caveolin specifically in the liver of diabetic obese mice, which were generated with a high-fat diet. Expression of molecules involved in IR signaling, such as IR or Akt, remained unchanged after gene transfer. However, hepatic glycogen synthesis was markedly increased with a decrease in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase protein expression. Insulin sensitivity was increased after caveolin gene transfer as determined by decreased blood glucose levels in response to insulin injection and fasting blood glucose levels. Glucose tolerant test performance was also improved. Similar improvements were obtained in KKAy genetically diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of caveolin-3 in hepatic cells also enhanced IR signaling, as shown by increased phosphorylation of IR in response to insulin stimulation and higher glycogen synthesis at baseline. These effects were attributed mostly to increased insulin receptor activity and caveolin-mediated, direct inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which was increased in obese mouse livers. In conclusion, our results suggest that caveolin is an important regulator of glucose metabolism that can enhance insulin signals.

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