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Articles by Y. Guan
Total Records ( 3 ) for Y. Guan
  G Zhao and Y. Guan

DNA polymerases amplify DNA fragments through primer extension reactions. However, polymerization behavior of short primers in the primer extension process has not been systematically explored. In this study, we examined the minimal primer length required for primer extension, and the effect of primer length, mismatches and other conditions on DNA polymerization using a non-radioactive method. Under the condition we conducted, the shortest primers polymerized by Klenow fragment (KF) and Taq DNA polymerase in our experiments were respectively heptamer and octamer. The extension efficiency was also affected by the up-stream overhanging structure of the primer–template complex. We hypothesized a simple model to interpret these observations based on the polymerase structures. Furthermore, it was found that the longer the primer, the more efficient is the primer extension. These polymerization behavior of short primers lay foundation about DNA polymerization mechanism and development of novel nucleic acid detection assays.

  J. Wang , D. Vijaykrishna , L. Duan , J. Bahl , J. X. Zhang , R. G. Webster , J. S. M. Peiris , H. Chen , Gavin J. D. Smith and Y. Guan
  The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (≥99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  D. K. W. Chu , L. L. M. Poon , Y. Guan and J. S. M. Peiris
  Bats are increasingly recognized to harbor a wide range of viruses, and in most instances these viruses appear to establish long-term persistence in these animals. They are the reservoir of a number of human zoonotic diseases including Nipah, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We report the identification of novel groups of astroviruses in apparently healthy insectivorous bats found in Hong Kong, in particular, bats belonging to the genera Miniopterus and Myotis. Astroviruses are important causes of diarrhea in many animal species, including humans. Many of the bat astroviruses form distinct phylogenetic clusters in the genus Mamastrovirus within the family Astroviridae. Virus detection rates of 36% to 100% and 50% to 70% were found in Miniopterus magnater and Miniopterus pusillus bats, respectively, captured within a single bat habitat during four consecutive visits spanning 1 year. There was high genetic diversity of viruses in bats found within this single habitat. Some bat astroviruses may be phylogenetically related to human astroviruses, and further studies with a wider range of bat species in different geographic locations are warranted. These findings are likely to provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of astroviruses and reinforce the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses with potential to pose a zoonotic threat to human health.
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