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Articles by Y. y Yu
Total Records ( 2 ) for Y. y Yu
  M Tessema , Y. Y Yu , C. A Stidley , E. O Machida , K. E Schuebel , S. B Baylin and S. A. Belinsky

Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is one of the major mechanisms in carcinogenesis and some critical growth regulatory genes have shown commonality in methylation across solid tumors. Twenty-six genes, 14 identified through methylation in colon and breast cancers, were evaluated using primary lung adenocarcinomas (n = 175) from current, former and never smokers. Tumor specificity of methylation was validated through comparison of 14 lung cancer cell lines to normal human bronchial epithelial cells derived from bronchoscopy of 20 cancer-free smokers. Twenty-five genes were methylated in 11–81% of primary tumors. Prevalence for methylation of TNFRSF10C, BHLHB5 and BOLL was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from never smokers than smokers. The relation between methylation of individual genes was examined using pairwise comparisons. A significant association was seen between 138 (42%) of the possible 325 pairwise comparisons. Most notably, methylation of MMP2, BHLHB4 or p16 was significantly associated with methylation of 16–19 other genes, thus predicting for a widespread methylation phenotype. Kaplan–Meier log-rank test and proportional hazard models identified a significant association between methylation of SULF2 (a pro-growth, -angiogenesis and -migration gene) and better patient survival (hazard ratio = 0.23). These results demonstrate a high degree of commonality for targeted silencing of genes between lung and other solid tumors and suggest that promoter hypermethylation in cancer is a highly co-ordinated event.

  Z Xing , C Lu , D Hu , Y. y Yu , X Wang , C Colnot , M Nakamura , Y Wu , T Miclau and R. S. Marcucio
  Zhiqing Xing, Chuanyong Lu, Diane Hu, Yan-yiu Yu, Xiaodong Wang, Celine Colnot, Mary Nakamura, Yalei Wu, Theodore Miclau, and Ralph S. Marcucio

Bone injury induces an inflammatory response that involves neutrophils, macrophages and other inflammatory cells. The recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of injury occurs in response to specific signaling pathways. The CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) is crucial for recruiting macrophages, as well as regulating osteoclast function. In this study, we examined fracture healing in Ccr2–/– mice. We first demonstrated that the expression of Ccr2 transcripts and the filtration of macrophages into fracture calluses were most robust during the early phases of fracture healing. We then determined that the number of macrophages at the fracture site was significantly lower in Ccr2–/– mice compared with wild-type controls at 3 days after injury. As a result, impaired vascularization, decreased formation of callus, and delayed maturation of cartilage were observed at 7 days after injury in mutant mice. At day 14, Ccr2–/– mice had less bone in their calluses. At day 21, Ccr2–/– mice had larger calluses and more bone compared with wild-type mice, suggesting a delayed remodeling. In addition, we examined the effect of Ccr2 mutation on osteoclasts. We found that a lack of Ccr2 did not affect the number of osteoclasts within fracture calluses at 21 days after injury. However, Ccr2–/– osteoclasts exhibited a decreased ability to resorb bone compared with wild-type cells, which could contribute to the delayed remodeling of fracture calluses observed in Ccr2–/– mice. Collectively, these results indicate that a deficiency of Ccr2 reduces the infiltration of macrophages and impairs the function of osteoclasts, leading to delayed fracture healing.

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