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Articles by Y. X Yuan
Total Records ( 2 ) for Y. X Yuan
  X. L Wang , W. B Lau , Y. X Yuan , Y. J Wang , W Yi , T. A Christopher , B. L Lopez , H. R Liu and X. L. Ma
 

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is closely related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the specific molecular basis linking DM with increased vulnerability to cardiovascular injury remains incompletely understood. Methylglyoxal (MG), a precursor to advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is increased in diabetic patient plasma, but its role in diabetic cardiovascular complications is unclear. Thioredoxin (Trx), a cytoprotective molecule with antiapoptotic function, has been demonstrated to be vulnerable to glycative inhibition, but whether Trx is glycatively inhibited by MG, thus contributing to increased cardiac injury, has never been investigated. Cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes were treated with MG (200 µM) for 6 days. The following were determined pre- and post-simulated ischemia-reperfusion (SI-R; 8 h of hypoxia followed by 3 h of reoxygenation): cardiomyocyte death/apoptosis, Trx expression and activity, AGE formation, Trx-apoptosis-regulating kinase-1 (Trx-ASK1) complex formation, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and activity. Compared with vehicle, MG significantly increased SI-R-induced cardiomyocyte LDH release and apoptosis (P < 0.01). Prior to SI-R, Trx activity was reduced in MG-treated cells, but Trx expression was increased moderately. Moreover, Trx-ASK1 complex formation was reduced, and both p38 MAPK activity and phosphorylation were increased. To investigate the effects of MG on Trx directly, recombinant human Trx (hTrx) was incubated with MG in vitro. Compared with vehicle, MG incubation markedly increased CML formation (a glycation footprint) and inhibited Trx activity. Finally, glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine administration during MG treatment of cultured cells reduced AGE formation, increased Trx activity, restored Trx-ASK1 interaction, and reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and activity, caspase-3 activation, and LDH release (P < 0.01). We demonstrated for the first time that methylglyoxal sensitized cultured cardiomyocytes to SI-R injury by posttranslational modification of Trx via glycation. Therapeutic interventions scavenging AGE precursors may attenuate ischemic-reperfusion injury in hyperglycemic state diseases such as diabetes.

  F Chen , M. J Gao , Y. S Miao , Y. X Yuan , M. Y Wang , Q Li , B. Z Mao , L. W Jiang and Z. H. He
 

The rice pattern recognition receptor (PRR) XA21 confers race-specific resistance in leaf infection by bacterial blight Xathomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and was shown to be primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed with its native promoter or overexpressed in the protoplast. However, whether the protein is still ER-localization in the intact cell when overexpressed remains to be identified. Here, we showed that XA21, its kinase-dead mutant XA21PK736EP, and the triple autophosphorylation mutant XA21PS686A/T688A/S699A GFP fusions were primarily localized to the plasma membrane (PM) when overexpressed in the intact transgenic rice cell, and also localized to the ER in the transgenic protoplast. The transgenic plants constitutively expressing the wild-type XA21 or its GFP fusion displayed race-specific resistance to Xoo at the adult and seedling stages. XA21 and XA21PK736EP could be internalized probably via the SCAMP-positive early endosomal compartment in the protoplast, suggesting that XA21 might be endocytosed to initiate resistance responses during pathogen infection. We also established a root infection system and demonstrated that XA21 also mediated race-specific resistance responses to Xoo in the root. Our current study provides an insight into the nature of the XA21-mediated resistance and a practical approach using the root cell system to further dissect the cellular signaling of the PRR during the rice–Xoo interaction.

 
 
 
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