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Articles by Y. T Gao
Total Records ( 4 ) for Y. T Gao
  S. A Lee , X. O Shu , H Li , G Yang , H Cai , W Wen , B. T Ji , J Gao , Y. T Gao and W. Zheng
 

Background: Soy food is a rich source of isoflavones—a class of phytoestrogens that has both antiestrogenic and anticarcinogenic properties.

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the association of adolescent and adult soy food intake with breast cancer risk in a cohort of 73,223 Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

Design: A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intake during adulthood and adolescence. After a mean follow-up of 7.4 y, 592 incident cases of breast cancer were identified for longitudinal analyses by using Cox regressions.

Results: Adult soy food consumption, measured either by soy protein or isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and the association was highly statistically significant (P for trend < 0.001). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the upper intake quintile compared with the lowest quintile were 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.70) for soy protein intake and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.73) for isoflavone intake. High intake of soy foods during adolescence was also associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.97). Women who consumed a high amount of soy foods consistently during adolescence and adulthood had a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer. No significant association with soy food consumption was found for postmenopausal breast cancer.

Conclusion: This large, population-based, prospective cohort study provides strong evidence of a protective effect of soy food intake against premenopausal breast cancer.

  A Beeghly Fadiel , W Lu , J. R Long , X. o Shu , Y Zheng , Q Cai , Y. T Gao and W. Zheng
 

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a well-known mediator of cancer metastasis but is also thought to be involved in several aspects of cancer development, including cell growth and inflammation. We comprehensively characterized genetic variation across the MMP-2 gene and evaluated associations with breast cancer risk using a two-phase (phase 1 and phase 2) study design. A total of 39 polymorphisms were genotyped among 6,066 Chinese women participating in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Two MMP-2 promoter polymorphisms were found to have consistent results between phase 1 and phase 2 participants, and to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk among all genotyped participants. Minor allele homozygotes for rs11644561 (G/A) were found to have a decreased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3-1.0] compared with major allele homozygotes, as were minor allele homozygotes for rs11643630 (T/G) compared with major allele homozygotes (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-1.0). When analyzed together, a rare haplotype (4.4%) with both rs11644561 A and rs11643630 G was found to have a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). In addition, rare allele homozygotes for rs243865 (–1306 C/T) tended to have an increased risk of breast cancer (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.4). Together, these findings support a role for MMP-2 genetic variation in breast cancer susceptibility. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1770–6)

  S. K Park , G Andreotti , A Rashid , J Chen , P. S Rosenberg , K Yu , J Olsen , Y. T Gao , J Deng , L. C Sakoda , M Zhang , M. C Shen , B. S Wang , T. Q Han , B. H Zhang , M Yeager , S. J Chanock and A. W. Hsing
 

Biliary tract cancer encompasses tumors of the gallbladder, bile duct and ampulla of Vater. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women, whereas bile duct cancer is more common in men, suggesting that sex hormones may play a role in the etiology of these cancers. The intracellular action of estrogens is regulated by the estrogen receptor (ESR); thus, we examined the role of common genetic variants in ESR genes on the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China (411 cancer cases, 895 stone cases and 786 controls). We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four in ESR1 (rs2234693, rs3841686, rs2228480 and rs1801132) and two in ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938). In all participants, the ESR1 rs1801132 (P325P) G allele was associated with excess risks of bile duct [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8] and ampulla of Vater cancers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 0.9–4.9) compared with the CC genotype. The association with bile duct cancer was apparent among men (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.7) but not among women (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Also, the ESR2 rs4986938 (38 bp 3' of STP) GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of bile duct cancer (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.7) compared with the AA genotype, although this estimate was based on a small number of subjects. None of the other SNPs examined was associated with biliary tract cancers or stones. False discovery rate-adjusted P-values were not significant (P > 0.1). No association was found for ESR1 haplotype based on four SNPs. These preliminary results suggest that variants in ESR genes could play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers, especially bile duct cancer in men.

  W Zheng , W Wen , Y. T Gao , Y Shyr , Y Zheng , J Long , G Li , C Li , K Gu , Q Cai , X. O Shu and W. Lu
  Background

Most of the genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have not been validated in Asian women. No risk assessment model that incorporates both genetic and clinical predictors is currently available to predict breast cancer risk in this population.

Methods

We analyzed 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in recent genome-wide association studies mostly of women of European ancestry as being associated with the risk of breast cancer in 3039 case patients and 3082 control subjects who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. All participants were interviewed in person to obtain information regarding known and suspected risk factors for breast cancer. The c statistic, a measure of discrimination ability with a value ranging from 0.5 (random classification) to 1.0 (perfect classification), was estimated to evaluate the contribution of genetic and established clinical predictors of breast cancer to a newly established risk assessment model for Chinese women. Clinical predictors included in the model were age at menarche, age at first live birth, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of breast cancer, and a previous diagnosis of benign breast disease. The utility of the models in risk stratification was evaluated by estimating the proportion of breast cancer patients in the general population that could be accounted for above a given risk threshold as predicted by the models. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Eight SNPs (rs2046210, rs1219648, rs3817198, rs8051542, rs3803662, rs889312, rs10941679, and rs13281615), each of which reflected a genetically independent locus, were found to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. A dose–response association was observed between the risk of breast cancer and the genetic risk score, which is an aggregate measure of the effect of these eight SNPs (odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of genetic risk score vs those in the lowest = 1.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.58 to 2.18, Ptrend = 2.5 x 10–15). The genetic risk score, the waist-to-hip ratio, and a previous diagnosis of benign breast disease were the top three predictors of the risk of breast cancer, each contributing statistically significantly (P < .001) to the full risk assessment model. The model, with a c statistic of 0.6295 after adjustment for overfitting, showed promise for stratifying women into different risk groups; women in the top 30% risk group accounted for nearly 50% of the breast cancers diagnosed in the general population.

Conclusion

A risk assessment model that includes both genetic markers and clinical predictors may be useful to classify Asian women into relevant risk groups for cost-efficient screening and other prevention programs.

 
 
 
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