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Articles by Y. S Kim
Total Records ( 6 ) for Y. S Kim
  Y. S Kim , H. J Park , T. K Kim , D. E Moon and H. J. Lee

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is chronic pain that is caused by an injury to the peripheral or central nervous system. The symptoms of neuropathic pain are continuing pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. Ginkgo biloba extract is an oriental herbal medicine that has various pharmacological actions. We examined the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, on the mechanical and cold allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared by tightly ligating the left L5 and L6 spinal nerves. All the rats developed mechanical and cold allodynia 7 days after surgery. Fifty neuropathic rats were assigned into five groups for the intraperitoneal administration of drugs. The study was double-blind and the order of the treatments was randomized. Normal saline and EGb 761 (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg) were administered, respectively, to the individual groups. We examined mechanical and cold allodynia at preadministration and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after intraperitoneal drug administration. Mechanical allodynia was quantified by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold to stimuli with von Frey filaments of 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0, 15.0, and 26.0 g. Cold allodynia was quantified by measuring the frequency of foot lift with applying 100% acetone. We measured the locomotor function of the neuropathic rats by using the rotarod test to reveal if EGb 761 has side effects, such as sedation or reduced motor coordination.

RESULTS: The control group showed no differences for mechanical and cold allodynia. For the EGb 761 groups, the paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical stimuli and withdrawal frequencies to cold stimuli were significantly reduced versus the preadministration values and versus the control group. The duration of antiallodynic effects increased in a dose-dependent fashion, and these were maintained for 120 min at the highest dose (P < 0.05). Only at the highest dose (200 mg/kg) did EGb 761 reduce the rotarod performance time.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, attenuates mechanical and cold allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain, and it may be useful for the management of neuropathic pain.

  C. W Lee , T. H Kim , H. M Lee , S. H Lee , J. H Yoo , Y. S Kim and S. H. Lee

Objectives  To investigate the expression levels and distribution patterns of elafin and cystatin C in normal and inflammatory human sinus mucosa and to evaluate their roles in chronic sinusitis.

Design  A controlled, prospective study.

Setting  A tertiary academic institution.

Patients  Normal sinus mucosa was obtained from the ethmoid sinus during surgery in 30 patients with blowout fractures. Inflammatory sinus mucosa was obtained from 30 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic polypoid sinusitis.

Interventions  Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting.

Main Outcome Measures  Expression levels and distribution patterns of elafin and cystatin C in normal and inflammatory mucosa.

Results  Expression of elafin and cystatin C messenger RNAs and proteins analyzed by means of reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot was detected in all normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa tested. Their expression levels were increased in inflammatory vs normal mucosa. Elafin in normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa was distinctly expressed in goblet cells, which are increased in inflammatory sinus mucosa. Elafin in submucosal glands was usually weak in staining intensity, except for a few scattered submucosal glands showing moderate intensity in inflammatory sinus mucosa. Cystatin C was also localized in goblet cells and submucosal glands in normal and inflammatory mucosa. Staining intensity was increased more in inflammatory vs normal sinus mucosa.

Conclusion  Elafin and cystatin C may play an important role in the protection of normal sinus mucosa and further in regulation of the inflammatory condition in chronic sinusitis.

  J. S Kang , S Y.Bae , H R.Kim , Y. S Kim , D J.Kim , B. J Cho , H. K Yang , Y. I Hwang , K J.Kim , H. S Park , D H.Hwang , D J.Cho and W. J. Lee

Cancer cells metastasize to the other site after escaping from the immune system and CD70, CD44 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play important roles in this process. It is recently reported that interleukin (IL)-18 is closely related with the pathogenesis of skin tumor. Therefore, we investigated the role of endogenous IL-18 from stomach cancer on the immune escape mechanism and metastasis via the regulation of CD70, CD44 and VEGF expression. IL-18 and IL-18R expressions were not only investigated on tumor tissues (n = 10), and sera (n = 20) from stomach cancer patients, but also on human stomach cancer cell lines. IL-18 and IL-18R expressions were found on stomach cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. In addition, IL-18 levels were elevated in sera from cancer patients (P < 0.05), compared with sera from normal individuals. Changes in CD70, CD44 and VEGF expression by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immune susceptibility by 51Cr-release assay were investigated, after silencing or neutralization of endogenous IL-18. CD70 expression was increased and it increases immune susceptibility of cancer cells. In contrast, CD44 and VEGF expression was decreased and it suppresses neovascularization and the metastasis of stomach cancer. After inoculation of IL-18 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfected stomach cancer cells into Balb/C (nu/nu) mice, regression of tumor mass was determined by measuring of tumor size. And the number and location of metastatic lesions were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The regression of tumor mass and the suppression of metastasis were observed in the mice, which are injected with IL-18 siRNA-transfected cell lines. Our data suggest that endogenous IL-18 might facilitate stomach cancer cell immune escape by suppressing CD70 and increasing metastatic ability by upregulating CD44 and VEGF.

  H Kang , Y. S Kim and J. Ko

The human leucine zipper protein (LZIP) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in leukocyte migration, tumor suppression, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated protein degradation. Although evidence suggests a diversity of roles for LZIP, its function is not fully understood, and the subcellular localization of LZIP is still controversial. We identified a novel isoform of LZIP and characterized its function in ligand-induced transactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in COS-7 and HeLa cells. A novel isoform of human LZIP designated as "sLZIP" contains a deleted putative transmembrane domain (amino acids 229–245) of LZIP and consists of 345 amino acids. LZIP and sLZIP were ubiquitously expressed in a variety of cell lines and tissues, with LZIP being much more common. sLZIP was mainly localized in the nucleus, whereas LZIP was located in the cytoplasm. Unlike LZIP, sLZIP was not involved in the chemokine-mediated signal pathway. sLZIP recruited histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the promoter region of the mouse mammary tumor virus luciferase reporter gene and enhanced the activities of HDACs, resulting in suppression of expression of the GR target genes. Our findings suggest that sLZIP functions as a negative regulator in glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activation of GR by recruitment and activation of HDACs.

  Y. S Kim , N. H Kim , S. J Yeom , S. W Kim and D. K. Oh

Codon optimization was used to synthesize the blh gene from the uncultured marine bacterium 66A03 for expression in Escherichia coli. The expressed enzyme cleaved β-carotene at its central double bond (15,15') to yield two molecules of all-trans-retinal. The molecular mass of the native purified enzyme was ~64 kDa as a dimer of 32-kDa subunits. The Km, kcat, and kcat/Km values for β-carotene as substrate were 37 µm, 3.6 min–1, and 97 mm–1 min–1, respectively. The enzyme exhibited the highest activity for β-carotene, followed by β-cryptoxanthin, β-apo-4'-carotenal, -carotene, and -carotene in decreasing order, but not for β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-apo-12'-carotenal, lutein, zeaxanthin, or lycopene, suggesting that the presence of one unsubstituted β-ionone ring in a substrate with a molecular weight greater than C35 seems to be essential for enzyme activity. The oxygen atom of retinal originated not from water but from molecular oxygen, suggesting that the enzyme was a β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase. Although the Blh protein and β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenases catalyzed the same biochemical reaction, the Blh protein was unrelated to the mammalian β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenases as assessed by their different properties, including DNA and amino acid sequences, molecular weight, form of association, reaction mechanism, kinetic properties, and substrate specificity. This is the first report of in vitro characterization of a bacterial β-carotene-cleaving enzyme.

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