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Articles by Y. Raji
Total Records ( 10 ) for Y. Raji
  Y. Raji , S.O. Ifabunmi , O.S. Akinsomisoye , A.O. Morakinyo and A.K. Oloyo
  This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water). Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01) at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05) at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio) and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01) at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01) at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01). The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.
  Y. Raji , M.A Gbadegesin , O.A Osonuga , Rahmat A. Adisa , O.S. Akinsomisoye , F.O Awobajo , Olufadekemi T. Kunle-Alabi , P.R.C. Esegbue Peters , I.O Osonuga and A.F. Lamidi
  Aqueous extract of Spondias mombin in different dilutions was employed to assess its impact on male reproductive, haematologic and biochemical indices of male albino rats. A single daily intragastric administration of 8.4, 16.8 and 33.6 mg kg-1 b.w day-1 of the extract for four weeks did not cause any adverse effect on body and organ weights except the weight of the liver that showed a slight increase. There was a marked dose-dependent reduction (p<0.05) in epididymal sperm progressive motility, sperm count, viability (live/dead ratio) and a dose-dependent increase (p<0.05) in percentage abnormal spermatozoa. Abnormalities like double heads, double tails, detached heads and broken tails were frequently observed. Epididymal α-glucosidase activity was significantly reduced (p<0.05). However, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and citric acid levels and seminal fructose concentrations remained unchanged following Spondias mombin treatment. Blood analysis showed that red cell and white cell counts and haematocrit (Hct) levels were in the normal range. Bilirubin, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), urea and protein concentrations were slightly altered by the extract of Spondias mombin. Discontinuation of the extract resulted in full recovery within four weeks of treatment cessation. The results suggest that aqueous extract of the bark of Spondias mombin has reversible antifertility action, the testis and the epididymis probably being the prime sites of action.
  Y. Raji , A.O. Morakinyo , O.S. Akinsomisoye , A.K. Oloyo , P.R.C. Esegbue-Peters and Olufadekemi T. Kunle-Alabi
  This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE) on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respectively with 25, 50 and 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE and 2.5% tween 80 in normal saline (vehicle for CPE; control). Rats in section 1 were treated with CPE for two weeks before mating (pre-coital). Rats in section 2 were administered CPE from day 1 of pregnancy till term (post coital) while rats in section 3 received the extract for two weeks before mating and thereafter throughout term (pre and post-coital). Implantation sites and resorptions were determined in some of the pregnant rats after laparotomy. The gestation period, litter size and fetal weight were recorded in the remaining rats. The litters were also observed for any morphological alterations. The extract treated rats had significant decreases in litter size and implantation count (p<0.01). The percentage resorptions increased in a dose dependent manner while the fetal weight and morphology remain unchanged when compared with the normal untreated control groups. The percentage resorptions were high in CPE treated rats when compared with the control group. None of the 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE treated female rats had litters. The results suggest that the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed has anti-implantation and abortifacient properties in female albino rats.

  Y. Raji , F.O. Awobajo , Olufadekemi , T. Kunle-Alabi , M.A. Gbadegesin and A.F. Bolarinwa
  This study was carried out to investigate the individual impact of ampicillin and cloxacillin on male reproduction using both in vivo and in vitro models. In the in vivo study, forty adult male albino rats divided into five groups were treated daily with 0.5 mL sterile water (control), 4 mg/100 g b.w/day of ampicillin and 6 mg/100 g b.w/day of cloxacillin. Each drug treated group had a corresponding recovery group. Vehicle and drugs were administered orally for two weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed; the recovery rats were sacrificed two weeks later. Body and reproductive organ weights and histomorphometric analyses of the testes and epididymides were carried out. Sperm counts, motility, viability and morphology and serum testosterone levels were determined. In the in vitro study, semen from the West African Dwarf Buck (WADB) was extended in graded concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg mL 1) of ampicillin and cloxacillin individually for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The in vivo results show that both drugs did not adversely affect body weigh but caused significant reduction (p<0.05) in the weight of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles and prostate glands. Similarly there was a significant decrease in sperm counts, motility, viability and morphologically normal spermatozoa. Seminiferous tubular diameter and epididymal ductular diameter were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in both ampicillin and cloxacillin treated rats when compared with the control. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in serum testosterone levels. Discontinuation of treatment led to recovery of organ weighs, testosterone secretion and sperm functions. In the in vitro experiments, sperm motility was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the two drugs. This reduction was both dose and duration dependent. The results suggest that ampicillin and cloxacillin could induce reversible infertility in male, which could be mediated by decrease in testosterone secretion.
  L.C. Saalu , V.A. Togun , A.O. Oyewopo and Y. Raji
  The study investigated the effect of melatonin on artificial crytorchidism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty rats weighing 220-270 g were divided into five treatment groups A, B, C, D and E with group A as control. The rats were rendered unilaterally (B and D) or bilaterally (C and E) cryptorchid by anchoring the upper pole of the testis to the abdominal wall. Groups D and E in addition received 0.7 mg kg-1 body weight of melatonin intraperitoneally between 9.00-10.00 am daily for 56 days. The control group gained 40% of their initial body weight while the mean weight losses of the cryptorchids were 27 and 23% (unilateral and bilateral without melatonin) and 45 and 39% (unilateral and bilateral with melatonin). Mean Paired Testes Weight (PTW) of control rats did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from those of groups B and D (unilateral cryptorchids with and without melatonin respectively) and E (bilateral cryptorchid with melatonin) but was significantly higher than the mean PTW of group C (bilateral cryptorchid without melatonin respectively). The ipsilateral testis without melatonin was lower in weight than the contralateral testis (B) while the weights were equal in melatonin treated rats (D). The mean PTW of bilateral cryptorchids with melatonin (E) was higher than the PTW of bilateral cryptorchids without melatonin. There was no sperm cell in the ipsilateral cauda epididymis of group B and the bilateral epididymides of group C rats that did not receive melatonin treatment (azoospermia). The epididymis of groups D and E rats, with melatonin administration had significantly (p<0.05) lower spermatozoa concentration (oligospermia) than the control rats. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between epididymal sperm concentration and motility of the control rats compared with the contralateral testis of groups B and D rats. Motility of cryptorchid epididymal sperm was slow and non-linear. It was concluded that artificial cryptorchidism negatively affected metabolic activities in male Sprague Dawley rats. The contralateral testes of artificial, unilateral cryptorchids were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the negative effect of artificial cryptochidism on the ipsilateral testes. Artificial cryptorchidism did not affect blood plasma testosterone level. Melatonin alleviated the deleterious effect of artificial cryptorchidism.
  S.B.Olaleye , Y. Raji , S.A. Onasanwo , P. Erigbali , S.O. Oyesola , A. Odukanmi , I.O. Omotosho and R.A. Elegbe
  In the present study, the effects of long-term, low level (Lo-Pb) and high level (Hi-Pb) exposure of rats to lead on total gastric juice secretion and experimental ulceration were studied. Rats were exposed to low (0.01%; 100 ppm) or high (0.5%, 5,000 ppm, HiPb) levels of lead for a period of 15 weeks. The formation of ulcers was induced by hypothermic stress, the administration of indomethacin and the application of an HCl/Ethanol mixture. Exposure of animals to lead significantly increased gastric lesions produced by HCl/Ethanol mixture and indomethacin but not those induced by restraint stress. Both the LoPb and HiPb treatments significantly increased gastric acidity and reduced gastric juice volume. The results underscore the role of cumulative lead exposure in the aetiology of gastric ulcers in high lead areas.
  J.K. Adesanwo , Y. Raji , S.B. Olaleye , S.A. Onasanwo , O.O. Fadare , O.O. Ige and O.O. Odusanya
  The effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves extract on indomethacin induced gastric ulceration was determined using 25 male albino rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each. The control group received 0.5 mL of distilled water and varying doses of the extract were used for the remaining groups (10-40 mg kg-1 body weight). The result showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in incidence of ulceration and mean basal and histamine (1 mg kg-1) stimulated gastric acid secretion in a dose dependent manner thus justifying the use of Bryophyllum pinnatum as an anti-ulcer agent in folklore medicine.
  Y. Raji , O.A Osonuga , S.B Olaleye , K.I. Adedokun , O.S. Akinsomisoye and O.O Mewoyeka
  Comparative reproductive activities of chloroquine, mefloquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine were explored in albino Wistar rats and semen from West African Dwarf Buck (WADB) with a view to elucidating the mechanism of action of these drugs on malereproduction. Five adult male rats were administered 0.5 mL distilled water and served as the control. Five rats each were administered orally chloroquine (10 mg kg -1 b.w.), mefloquine (10 mg kg -1 b.w.) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (5 mg kg -1 b.w.) orally, for four weeks. Each group had it`s own recovery group. Sperm counts, motility and morphology were reduced in rats treated with these drugs in the order mefloquine (p<0.05)> chloroquine > sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. There was an appreciable recovery in the motility of sperms in all recovery groups. Semen samples from WADB were extended separately with chloroquine, mefloquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Extender 1 (first control) had no PENSTRIP (Penicillin and Streptomycin combination) while extender 2 (standard extender; second control) had PENSTRIP. Semen in extenders 3, 4 and 5 were treated with chloroquine, mefloquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. Spermatozoa progressive motility in these extenders examined under the microscope at 24 h for 5 days significantly reduced in mefloquine (p<0.01), slightly with chloroquine and unchanged with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. The pH of the extenders was significantly reduced in duration dependent manner in mefloquine while it remained unchanged with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. The results suggest the safety of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and chloroquine in preservation of semen ex vivo while the negative impact of mefloquine could reside within the testis or epididymis.
  O.A. Osonuga , I.O. Osonuga , O.S. Akinsomisoye , Y. Raji and O.G. Ademowo
  Efforts in this study were directed at comparing changes in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in the cause of treatment of severe malaria patients with artemether and quinine in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State, Southwest, Nigeria. Thirty two patients in the study were randomly assigned to receive either artemether or quinine under medical supervision. 16 patients were allocated into two treatment groups. Patients in the quinine group received quinine 10 mg kg-1 in 5% dextrose-saline infusion intravenously at 8 h intervals but changed to oral quinine ( 10 mg kg-1 b.w; 8 h intervals) for 7 days . The patients in the artemether group received 1.6 mg kg-1 artemether twice at day 0 and then 1.6 mg kg-1 daily for the next four days through deep intramuscular route. The patients were then followed up for 14 days. The results this study showed that the PCV of the patients was 25.9% (range of 14-41%) at day 0. The mean PCV of the patients was 26.25% and 25.56% following quinine and artemether treatments, respectively. The mean PCV at day 14 was 34.5 and 38.2%, respectively for quinine and artemether. The results from this study indicate that artemether relative to quinine has a faster and sustained recovery from malaria induced anaemia.
  Y. Raji , O.A. Osonuga , O.I Shittu , O.S. Akinsomisoye , V.A. Togun and Mistura O. Azeez
  A study of 542 randomly selected female students of the University of Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomoso, both located in the southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the current menarcheal age and predicting factors influencing its onset. Mean age at menarche was found to be 13.66±1.82 years. 49.3% attained menarche between the ages of 13 and 14 years, 75.7% between 12 and 15 years, 8.1% at 16 while 6.1% had their first menstruation at age 11 years. There was a significant linear relationship (p = 0.004) between the age at menarche and body weight. The body surface area and height showed an insignificant inverse relationship with age at menarche. Socio-economic status of the parents had no influence on the age at menarche. Simple and multiple regression models for predicting age at menarche were derived from body weight, height and body surface area.
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