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Articles by Y. B Kim
Total Records ( 3 ) for Y. B Kim
  H. J Park , Y Zhang , C Du , C. M Welzig , C Madias , M. J Aronovitz , S. P Georgescu , I Naggar , B Wang , Y. B Kim , R. O Blaustein , R. H Karas , R Liao , C. E Mathews and J. B. Galper

Rationale: Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN), a major complication of diabetes mellitus, is characterized, in part, by impaired cardiac parasympathetic responsiveness. Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart involves activation of an acetylcholine-gated K+ current, IKAch, via a (GIRK1)2/(GIRK4)2 K+ channel. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is a lipid-sensitive transcription factor.

Objective: We describe a unique SREBP-1–dependent mechanism for insulin regulation of cardiac parasympathetic response in a mouse model for DAN.

Methods and Results: Using implantable EKG transmitters, we demonstrated that compared with wild-type, Ins2Akita type I diabetic mice demonstrated a decrease in the negative chronotropic response to carbamylcholine characterized by a 2.4-fold decrease in the duration of bradycardia, a 52±8% decrease in atrial expression of GIRK1 (P<0.01), and a 31.3±2.1% decrease in SREBP-1 (P<0.05). Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of atrial myocytes from Akita mice exhibited a markedly decreased carbamylcholine stimulation of IKAch with a peak value of –181±31 pA/pF compared with –451±62 pA/pF (P<0.01) in cells from wild-type mice. Western blot analysis of extracts of Akita mice demonstrated that insulin treatment increased the expression of GIRK1, SREBP-1, and IKAch activity in atrial myocytes from these mice to levels in wild-type mice. Insulin treatment of cultured atrial myocytes stimulated GIRK1 expression 2.68±0.12-fold (P<0.01), which was reversed by overexpression of dominant negative SREBP-1. Finally, adenoviral expression of SREBP-1 in Akita atrial myocytes reversed the impaired IKAch to levels in cells from wild-type mice.

Conclusions: These results support a unique molecular mechanism for insulin regulation of GIRK1 expression and parasympathetic response via SREBP-1, which might play a role in the pathogenesis of DAN in response to insulin deficiency in the diabetic heart.

  Y. C Li , J. P Ren , M. J Cho , S. M Zhou , Y. B Kim , H. X Guo , J. H Wong , H. B Niu , H. K Kim , S Morigasaki , P. G Lemaux , O. L Frick , J Yin and B. B. Buchanan

Work with cereals (barley and wheat) and a legume (Medicago truncatula) has established thioredoxin h (Trx h) as a central regulatory protein of seeds. Trx h acts by reducing disulfide (S–S) groups of diverse seed proteins (storage proteins, enzymes, and enzyme inhibitors), thereby facilitating germination. Early in vitro protein studies were complemented with experiments in which barley seeds with Trx h overexpressed in the endosperm showed accelerated germination and early or enhanced expression of associated enzymes (-amylase and pullulanase). The current study extends the transgenic work to wheat. Two approaches were followed to alter the expression of Trx h genes in the endosperm: (1) a hordein promoter and its protein body targeting sequence led to overexpression of Trx h5, and (2) an antisense construct of Trx h9 resulted in cytosolic underexpression of that gene (Arabidopsis designation). Underexpression of Trx h9 led to effects opposite to those observed for overexpression Trx h5 in barley—retardation of germination and delayed or reduced expression of associated enzymes. Similar enzyme changes were observed in developing seeds. The wheat lines with underexpressed Trx showed delayed preharvest sprouting when grown in the greenhouse or field without a decrease in final yield. Wheat with overexpressed Trx h5 showed changes commensurate with earlier in vitro work: increased solubility of disulfide proteins and lower allergenicity of the gliadin fraction. The results are further evidence that the level of Trx h in cereal endosperm determines fundamental properties as well as potential applications of the seed.

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