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Articles by Y Xie
Total Records ( 8 ) for Y Xie
  Y Xie , M Wu , R Song , J Ma , Y Shi , W Qin and Y. Jin

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a subpopulation of T cells that not only prevent autoimmunity, but also control a wide range of T cell-dependent immune responses. Glucocorticoid treatment (dexamethasone, or Dex) has been reported to amplify IL-2-mediated selective in vivo expansion of Treg cells. We simultaneously administered Dex and IL-2 to the donor in a murine allogeneic lymphocyte transplantation model to expand functional suppressive CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in the graft and to raise the regulatory T cell/effector T cell (Treg/Teff) ratio to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). After combined treatment of the donor with Dex (5 mg/kg/day) and IL-2 (300,000 IU/mouse/day) for 3 days, grafts were subjected to flow cytometric analysis, and transplantation was carried out from male C57BL/6 mice to female BALB/c mice aged 8–12 weeks. Results showed that short-term simultaneous administration of Dex and IL-2 markedly expanded functional suppressive CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in the murine spleen. In this murine allogeneic transplantation model, the grafts from donors with Dex and IL-2 pre-treatment led to a longer survival time for the recipients than for the control group (median survival time > 60 day vs. 12 day, P = 0.0002). The ratio of Treg/Teff also increased remarkably (0.43 ± 0.15 vs. 0.14 ± 0.01, P = 0.01). This study demonstrated that co-stimulation with Dex and IL-2 selectively expanded functional CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in vivo, and that grafts from donors pre-treated with Dex and IL-2 led to longer survival time and greater suppression of GVHD after allogeneic transplantation. Thus, GVHD can be suppressed by the specific expansion of regulatory T cells with Dex and IL-2 in graft donors.

  X. L Xu , B. C Xing , H. B Han , W Zhao , M. H Hu , Z. L Xu , J. Y Li , Y Xie , J Gu , Y Wang and Z. Q. Zhang

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality due to its high rate of recurrence. However, little is known about the biological characteristics of recurrent HCC cells. A single patient's primary and recurrent HCC-derived cell lines, Hep-11 and Hep-12, respectively, were established by primary culture. These two cell lines have the same hepatitis B virus integration site and share many common amplifications and deletions, which suggest that they have the same clonal origin. While Hep-11 cells were non-tumorigenic at 16 weeks following injection of up to 10 000 cells, injection of only 100 Hep-12 cells was sufficient to initiate tumor growth, and all single Hep-12 clones were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. Compared with Hep-11, Hep-12 cells expressed the oval cell markers AFP, NCAM/CD56, c-kit/CD117, as well as multiple stem cell markers such as Nanog, OCT4 and SOX2. In addition, >90% of Hep-12 cells were aldehyde dehydrogenase positive. They were also less resistant to paclitaxel, but more resistant to doxorubicin, cisplatin and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), which had been administrated to the patient. Furthermore, Hep-12 cells expressed higher levels of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) than Hep-11, and PARP-1 inhibition potentiated the sensitivity to HCPT in Hep-12 cells but not in Hep-11 cells. These results indicate that a large population of the recurrent HCC-derived Hep-12 cells were tumor-initiating cells and that elevated expression of PARP-1 was related to their resistance to HCPT.

  S. A Arnold , L. B Rivera , A. F Miller , J. G Carbon , S. P Dineen , Y Xie , D. H Castrillon , E. H Sage , P Puolakkainen , A. D Bradshaw and R. A. Brekken
  Shanna A. Arnold, Lee B. Rivera, Andrew F. Miller, Juliet G. Carbon, Sean P. Dineen, Yang Xie, Diego H. Castrillon, E. Helene Sage, Pauli Puolakkainen, Amy D. Bradshaw, and Rolf A. Brekken

Utilizing subcutaneous tumor models, we previously validated SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) as a key component of the stromal response, where it regulated tumor size, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition. In the present study, we demonstrate that pancreatic tumors grown orthotopically in Sparc-null (Sparc–/–) mice are more metastatic than tumors grown in wild-type (Sparc+/+) littermates. Tumors grown in Sparc–/– mice display reduced deposition of fibrillar collagens I and III, basement membrane collagen IV and the collagen-associated proteoglycan decorin. In addition, microvessel density and pericyte recruitment are reduced in tumors grown in the absence of host SPARC. However, tumors from Sparc–/– mice display increased permeability and perfusion, and a subsequent decrease in hypoxia. Finally, we found that tumors grown in the absence of host SPARC exhibit an increase in alternatively activated macrophages. These results suggest that increased tumor burden in the absence of host SPARC is a consequence of reduced collagen deposition, a disrupted vascular basement membrane, enhanced vascular function and an immune-tolerant, pro-metastatic microenvironment.

  X Wang , J Hao , Y Xie , Y Sun , B Hernandez , A. K Yamoah , M Prasad , Q Zhu , J. Q Feng and C. Qin

Mutations in FAM20C were recently identified as the cause of lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia, which highlighted the important role of this molecule in biomineralization. No systematic studies have been performed to evaluate the expression pattern of this relatively new molecule in the developmental processes of bone and tooth. In the present study, we analyzed in detail the expression profile of FAM20C during osteogenesis and odontogenesis using ISH and IHC approaches. The specimens analyzed were mouse tissues spanning embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to postnatal 8 weeks. The earliest presence of FAM20C was observed at E14.5. During osteogenesis, FAM20C mRNA was detected in the chondrocytes and osteoblasts of the long bone, whereas its protein was observed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone and in the cytoplasm of the chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. During odontogenesis, FAM20C mRNA was detected in the ameloblasts, odontoblasts, cementoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts, whereas its protein was observed in the matrices of dentin, enamel, and alveolar bone and in the cytoplasm of the aforementioned cells. The temporospatial expression profile revealed in this study indicates that FAM20C is an ECM protein that may play an important role in controlling the mineralization of bone and tooth. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:957–967, 2010)

  M Jiang , Y Ma , C Chen , X Fu , S Yang , X Li , G Yu , Y Mao , Y Xie and Y. Li

Androgen signaling plays an important role in many biological processes. Androgen Responsive Gene Database (ARGDB) is devoted to providing integrated knowledge on androgen-controlled genes. Gene records were collected on the basis of PubMed literature collections. More than 6000 abstracts and 950 original publications were manually screened, leading to 1785 human genes, 993 mouse genes, and 583 rat genes finally included in the database. All the collected genes were experimentally proved to be regulated by androgen at the expression level or to contain androgen-responsive regions. For each gene important details of the androgen regulation experiments were collected from references, such as expression change, androgen-responsive sequence, response time, tissue/cell type, experimental method, ligand identity, and androgen amount, which will facilitate further evaluation by researchers. Furthermore, the database was integrated with multiple annotation resources, including National Center for Biotechnology Information, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, to reveal the biological characteristics and significance of androgen-regulated genes. The ARGDB web site is mainly composed of the Browse, Search, Element Scan, and Submission modules. It is user friendly and freely accessible at Preliminary analysis of the collected data was performed. Many disease pathways, such as prostate carcinogenesis, were found to be enriched in androgen-regulated genes. The discovered androgen-response motifs were similar to those in previous reports. The analysis results are displayed in the web site. In conclusion, ARGDB provides a unified gateway to storage, retrieval, and update of information on androgen-regulated genes.

  L Kang , X Zhang , Y Xie , Y Tu , D Wang , Z Liu and Z. Y. Wang

Accumulating evidence suggested that an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30, mediates nongenomic responses to estrogen. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying GPR30 function. We found that knockdown of GPR30 expression in breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells down-regulated the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-36, a variant of ER-. Introduction of a GPR30 expression vector into GPR30 nonexpressing cells induced endogenous ER-36 expression, and cotransfection assay demonstrated that GPR30 activated the promoter activity of ER-36 via an activator protein 1 binding site. Both 17β-estradiol (E2) and G1, a compound reported to be a selective GPR30 agonist, increased the phosphorylation levels of the MAPK/ERK1/2 in SK-BR-3 cells, which could be blocked by an anti-ER-36-specific antibody against its ligand-binding domain. G1 induced activities mediated by ER-36, such as transcription activation activity of a VP16-ER-36 fusion protein and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 in ER-36-expressing cells. ER-36-expressing cells, but not the nonexpressing cells, displayed high-affinity, specific E2 and G1 binding, and E2- and G1-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization only in ER-36 expressing cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that previously reported activities of GPR30 in response to estrogen were through its ability to induce ER-36 expression. The selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30 agonist G1 actually interacts with ER-36. Thus, the ER- variant ER-36, not GPR30, is involved in nongenomic estrogen signaling.

  A. J Snider , Z Zhang , Y Xie and K. E. Meier

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), is a lipid mediator that binds to G-protein coupled receptors. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a polypeptide growth factor, binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase. Both LPA and EGF induce responses in tumor cells that include proliferation, migration, metastasis, and induction of angiogenesis. LPA has the potential to act as an autocrine/paracrine factor and can transactivate the EGFR. This study explores the role of phospholipase D2 (PLD2) activation in LPA production, as well as cross-talk between EGF and LPA receptors. We demonstrate that EGF and LPA both stimulate production of LPA by OVCAR3 and SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell lines. PD158780, an EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocks LPA production in response to both EGF and LPA in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of LPA receptor signaling, inhibits LPA production in response to both EGF and LPA. Similar results were observed for the LPA receptor antagonist, Ki16425. Overexpression of PLD2 increases LPA production, while knockdown of PLD2 blocks EGF-induced LPA production. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor also blocks LPA- and EGF-induced LPA production. These results indicate that EGF stimulates LPA production in a manner that requires PLD2, and suggest that cross-talk can occur bidirectionally between EGF and LPA receptors.

  Y Xie , A Akpinarli , C Maris , E. L Hipkiss , M Lane , E. K. M Kwon , P Muranski , N. P Restifo and P. A. Antony

In vitro differentiated CD8+ T cells have been the primary focus of immunotherapy of cancer with little focus on CD4+ T cells. Immunotherapy involving in vitro differentiated T cells given after lymphodepleting regimens significantly augments antitumor immunity in animals and human patients with cancer. However, the mechanisms by which lymphopenia augments adoptive cell therapy and the means of properly differentiating T cells in vitro are still emerging. We demonstrate that naive tumor/self-specific CD4+ T cells naturally differentiated into T helper type 1 cytotoxic T cells in vivo and caused the regression of established tumors and depigmentation in lymphopenic hosts. Therapy was independent of vaccination, exogenous cytokine support, CD8+, B, natural killer (NK), and NKT cells. Proper activation of CD4+ T cells in vivo was important for tumor clearance, as naive tumor-specific CD4+ T cells could not completely treat tumor in lymphopenic common gamma chain (c)–deficient hosts. c signaling in the tumor-bearing host was important for survival and proper differentiation of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. Thus, these data provide a platform for designing immunotherapies that incorporate tumor/self-reactive CD4+ T cells.

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