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Articles by Y Song
Total Records ( 9 ) for Y Song
  M Zhang , N Congdon , L Li , Y Song , K Choi , Y Wang , Z Zhou , X Liu , A Sharma , W Chen and D. S. C. Lam
 

Objective  To study the effect of myopia and spectacle wear on bicycle-related injuries in rural Chinese students. Myopia is common among Chinese students but few studies have examined its effect on daily activities.

Methods  Data on visual acuity, refractive error, current spectacle wear, and history of bicycle use and accidents during the past 3 years were sought from 1891 students undergoing eye examinations in rural Guangdong province.

Results  Refractive and accident data were available for 1539 participants (81.3%), among whom the mean age was 14.6 years, 52.5% were girls, 26.8% wore glasses, and 12.9% had myopia of less than –4 diopters in both eyes. More than 90% relied on bicycles to get to school daily. A total of 2931 accidents were reported by 423 participants, with 68 requiring medical attention. Male sex (odds ratio, 1.55; P < .001) and spectacle wear (odds ratio, 1.38; P = .04) were associated with a higher risk of accident, but habitual visual acuity and myopia were unassociated with the crash risk, after adjusting for age, sex, time spent riding, and risky riding behaviors.

Conclusion  These results may be consistent with data on motor vehicle accidents implicating peripheral vision (potentially compromised by spectacle wear) more strongly than central visual acuity in mediating crash risk.

  Y Dong , B Lu , X Zhang , J Zhang , L Lai , D Li , Y Wu , Y Song , J Luo , X Pang , Z Yi and M. Liu
 

Cucurbitacin E (CuE, -elaterin), a tetracyclic triterpenes compound from folk traditional Chinese medicine plants, has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth, inflammatory response and bilirubin–albumin binding. However, the effects of CuE on tumor angiogenesis and its potential molecular mechanism are still unknown. Here, we demonstrated that CuE significantly inhibited human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis in vitro and blocked angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model in vivo. Furthermore, we found that CuE remarkably induced HUVEC apoptosis, inhibited tumor angiogenesis and suppressed human prostate tumor growth in xenograft tumor model. Finally, we showed that CuE blocked vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2-mediated Janus kinase (Jak) 2–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling pathway in endothelial cells and suppressed the downstream protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Therefore, our studies provided the first evidence that CuE inhibited tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGFR2-mediated Jak–STAT3 and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways and CuE is a potential candidate in angiogenesis-related disease therapy.

  S Hu , Z Zheng , X Yuan , W Wang , Y Song , H Sun and J. Xu
 

Background— Despite its widespread use and short-term efficacy, substantial uncertainty remains about the long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB).

Methods and Results— A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted of 6665 consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) at our institution during 1999 to 2006. All patients were followed up until September 30, 2008. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between OPCAB and conventional CABG. The 2 main long-term outcome measures were repeat revascularization and the composite outcome of major vascular events. Cost comparison at 2 years in a propensity-matched sample during follow-up was also a study interest. The overall mean baseline age was 60.3±8.6 years, and 17.0% were women. Compared with conventional CABG, patients who underwent OPCAB had lower rates of atrial fibrillation (P=0.003) and requirements for blood transfusion (P=0.03) and ventilation time >24 hours (P<0.001). After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up, the rates of repeat revascularization (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.89) and major vascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.39) were significantly higher in the OPCAB than the conventional CABG group. At 2 years, OPCAB was associated with increased additional direct costs per patient compared with conventional CABG and had a similar survival rate.

Conclusions— Compared with conventional CABG, OPCAB is associated with small short-term gain but increased long-term risks of repeat revascularization and major vascular events, especially among high-risk patients. Moreover, OPCAB consumes more resources and is less cost-effective in the long run.

  B. C Villafuerte , M. T Barati , Y Song , J. P Moore , P. N Epstein and J. Portillo
 

Recent evidence supports the idea that insulin signaling through the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in the maintenance of β-cell mass and function. We previously identified the insulin-response element binding protein-1 (IRE-BP1) as an effector of insulin-induced Akt signaling in the liver, and showed that the 50-kDa carboxyl fragment confers the transcriptional activity of this factor. In this investigation we found that IRE-BP1 is expressed in the , β, and -cells of the islets of Langerhans, and is localized to the cytoplasm in β-cells in normal rats, but is reduced and redistributed to the islet cell nuclei in obese Zucker rats. To test whether IRE-BP1 modulates β-cell function and insulin secretion, we used the rat insulin II promoter to drive expression of the carboxyl fragment in β-cells. Transgenic expression of IRE-BP1 in FVB mice increases nuclear IRE-BP1 expression, and produces a phenotype similar to that of type 2 diabetes, with hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and increased body weight. IRE-BP1 increased islet type I IGF receptor expression, potentially contributing to the development of islet hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that increased gene transcription mediated through IRE-BP1 may contribute to β-cell dysfunction in insulin resistance, and allow for the hypothesis that IRE-BP1 plays a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.

  Y Song and C. Y. Ji
  Background

To describe the characteristics of a population with high-risk sexual behaviours and associations between sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics among Chinese urban adolescents.

Methods

In 2005, 109 754 students in grades 10–12 and 33 653 college students were anonymously surveyed using a Chinese Youth Risk Behaviour Survey. Demographic variables and indicators of forced sex, condom use and unintended pregnancy were analysed with multiple logistic regressions.

Results

Of students surveyed, median age was 17.6 (range 14–24 years) and 76 233 were female (53.2%); 4.8% of high school students reported had experienced sexual intercourse; of these, 32.8% reported had forced sex; 11.3% of college students reported had experienced sexual intercourse and of these, the prevalence of forced sex, condom use and unintended pregnancy were 23.5, 49.7 and 24.2%, respectively. School type and socioeconomic status were found to be independently associated with sexual intercourse and forced sex for high school students. For college students, educational level, school type, family structure, maternal education and socioeconomic status were independently associated with high-risk sexual behaviours.

Conclusion

This study highlights the association between high-risk sexual behaviours and school type and socioeconomic status. These results strongly suggest the importance of providing sex education in high schools and lower socioeconomic areas.

  J Liu , Y Song , B Tian , J Qian , Y Dong , B Liu and Z. Sun
 

It is well established that promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) play important roles in DNA damage responses (DDR). After irradiation, PML NBs dynamically recruit or release important proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis. As PML protein is the key molecule of PML NBs’ dynamic assembling, we aimed to characterize the PML-interacting proteins in 60Co-irradiated MCF-7 cells. A proteomic approach using CoIP, mono-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify a total of 124 proteins that may associate with PML after irradiation. Bioinformatic analysis of the identified proteins showed that most of them were related to characterized PML functions, such as transcriptional regulation, cell-cycle regulation, cell-death regulation and response to stress. Four proteins, B23, MVP, G3BP1 and DHX9, were verified to co-localize with PML differentially before and after ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. The proteins identified in this study will significantly improve our understanding of the dynamic organization and multiple functions of PML NBs in DDR.

  S. P Chung , K Sogabe , H. K Park , Y Song , K Ono , R. M Abou El Magd , Y Shishido , K Yorita , T Sakai and K. Fukui
 

d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that exists in the kidney, liver and brain of mammals. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of d-amino acids to the corresponding -keto acid, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Recently d-serine, one of the substrates of DAO, has been found in the mammalian brain, and shown to be a co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in glutamate neurotransmission. In this study, we investigated the metabolism of extracellular d-serine and the effects of d-serine metabolites to study the pathophysiological role of DAO. Treatment with a high dose of d-serine induced the cell death in dose-dependent manner in DAO-expressing cells. Moreover, overexpression of DAO in astroglial cells induced the enhanced cytotoxicity. The treatment with 1 mM beta-hydroxypyruvate (HPA), uniquely produced from the d-serine metabolism by DAO activity, also induced cell death, comprising apoptosis, in the astroglial cell, but not in the other cells derived from liver and kidney. Taken together, we consider that high dose of extracellular d-serine induced cell death by the production of not only hydrogen peroxide but also HPA as a result of DAO catalytic activity in astroglial cell. Furthermore, this cytotoxicity of HPA is observed uniquely in astroglial cells expressing DAO.

  W Namkung , Y Song , A. D Mills , P Padmawar , W. E Finkbeiner and A. S. Verkman
 

The airway surface liquid (ASL) is the thin fluid layer lining airway surface epithelial cells, whose volume and composition are tightly regulated and may be abnormal in cystic fibrosis (CF). We synthesized a two-color fluorescent dextran to measure ASL [K+], TAC-Lime-dextran-TMR, consisting of a green-fluorescing triazacryptand K+ ionophore-Bodipy conjugate, coupled to dextran, together with a red fluorescing tetramethylrhodamine reference chromophore. TAC-Lime-dextran-TMR fluorescence was K+-selective, increasing >4-fold with increasing [K+] from 0 to 40 mm. In well differentiated human airway epithelial cells, ASL [K+] was 20.8 ± 0.3 mm and decreased by inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump (ouabain), ENaC (amiloride), CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTRinh-172), or K+ channels (TEA or XE991). ASL [K+] was increased by forskolin but not affected by Na+/K+/2Cl cotransporter inhibition (bumetanide). Functional and expression studies indicated the involvement of [K+] channels KCNQ1, KCNQ3, and KCNQ5 as determinants of ASL [K+]. [K+] in CF cultures was similar to that in non-CF cultures, suggesting that abnormal ASL [K+] is not a factor in CF lung disease. In intact airways, ASL [K+] was also well above extracellular [K+]: 22 ± 1 mm in pig trachea ex vivo and 16 ± 1 mm in mouse trachea in vivo. Our results provide the first noninvasive measurements of [K+] in the ASL and indicate the involvement of apical and basolateral membrane ion transporters in maintaining a high ASL [K+].

  Y. J Qadri , B. K Berdiev , Y Song , H. L Lippton , C. M Fuller and D. J. Benos
 

Acid-sensing ion channel-1 (ASIC-1) is a proton-gated ion channel implicated in nociception and neuronal death during ischemia. Recently the first crystal structure of a chicken ASIC was obtained. Expanding upon this work, homology models of the human ASICs were constructed and evaluated. Energy-minimized structures were tested for validity by in silico docking of the models to psalmotoxin-1, which potently inhibits ASIC-1 and not other members of the family. The data are consistent with prior radioligand binding and functional assays while also explaining the selectivity of PcTX-1 for homomeric hASIC-1a. Binding energy calculations suggest that the toxin and channel create a complex that is more stable than the channel alone. The binding is dominated by the coulombic contributions, which account for why the toxin-channel interaction is not observed at low pH. The computational data were experimentally verified with single channel and whole-cell electrophysiological studies. These validated models should allow for the rational design of specific and potent peptidomimetic compounds that may be useful for the treatment of pain or ischemic stroke.

 
 
 
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