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Articles by Y Sakurai
Total Records ( 2 ) for Y Sakurai
  H Kudo , M Shinto , Y Sakurai and M. Kaeriyama

It is generally accepted that anadromous Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) imprint to odorants in their natal streams during their seaward migration and use olfaction to identify these during their homeward migration. Despite the importance of the olfactory organ during olfactory imprinting, the development of this structure is not well understood in Pacific salmon. Olfactory cues from the environment are relayed to the brain by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the olfactory organ. Thus, we analyzed morphometric changes in olfactory lamellae of the peripheral olfactory organ and in the quantity of ORNs during life history from alevin to mature in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The number of lamellae increased markedly during early development, reached 18 lamellae per unilateral peripheral olfactory organ in young salmon with a 200 mm in body size, and maintained this lamellar complement after young period. The number of ORNs per olfactory organ was about 180 000 and 14.2 million cells in fry and mature salmon, respectively. The relationship between the body size (fork length) and number of ORNs therefore revealed an allometric association. Our results represent the first quantitative analysis of the number of ORNs in Pacific salmon and suggest that the number of ORNs is synchronized with the fork length throughout its life history.

  K Akasaka Manya , H Manya , Y Sakurai , B. S Wojczyk , Y Saito , N Taniguchi , S Murayama and S. L Spitalnik

Alteration of glycoprotein glycans often changes various properties of the target glycoprotein and contributes to a wide variety of diseases. Here, we focused on the N-glycans of amyloid precursor protein whose cleaved fragment, β-amyloid, is thought to cause much of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously determined the N-glycan structures of normal and mutant amyloid precursor proteins (the Swedish type and the London type). In comparison with normal amyloid precursor protein, mutant amyloid precursor proteins had higher contents of bisecting GlcNAc residues. Because N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) is the glycosyltransferase responsible for synthesizing a bisecting GlcNAc residue, the current report measured GnT-III mRNA expression levels in the brains of AD patients. Interestingly, GnT-III mRNA expression was increased in AD brains. Furthermore, β-amyloid treatment increased GnT-III mRNA expression in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. We then examined the influence of bisecting GlcNAc on the production of β-amyloid. Both β-amyloid 40 and β-amyloid 42 were significantly decreased in GnT-III-transfected cells. When secretase activities were analyzed in GnT-III transfectant cells, -secretase activity was increased. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of GnT-III in AD brains may represent an adaptive response to protect them from additional β-amyloid production.

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