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Articles by Y Saito
Total Records ( 9 ) for Y Saito
  A Miyaki , S Maeda , M Yoshizawa , M Misono , Y Saito , H Sasai , T Endo , Y Nakata , K Tanaka and R. Ajisaka

Obesity and reduction in central arterial distensibility, respectively, have been identified as powerful and independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of weight reduction on central arterial function in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether low-calorie diet-induced weight reduction affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-aged obese men. Twelve obese men (age: 45+2 yrs, BMI: 30+1 kg/m 2) completed a 12-week dietary intervention. Caloric restriction induced significantly weight loss and decrease in BMI. After the program, carotid arterial compliance significantly increased and b-stiffness index and aortic pulse-wave velocity remarkably decreased. Concentrations of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (NO) markedly increased after the program. Weight reduction by low-calorie diet in obese men increases central arterial distensibility, which may contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as noted by a decrease in ET-1 and an increase in NO.

  T Kozu , G Iinuma , Y Ohashi , Y Saito , T Akasu , D Saito , D. B Alexander , M Iigo , T Kakizoe and H. Tsuda

Lactoferrin (LF), a secreted, iron binding glycoprotein originally discovered as a component of milk, is found in a variety of exocrine secretions and in the secondary granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Animal experiments have shown that oral administration of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts anticarcinogenesis effects in the colon and other organs of the rat. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral bLF could inhibit the growth of adenomatous colorectal polyps in human patients. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted in 104 participants, ages 40 to 75 years, with polyps ≤5 mm in diameter and likely to be adenomas. Participants were assigned to receive placebo, 1.5-g bLF, or 3.0-g bLF daily for 12 months. Target adenomatous polyps were monitored by colonoscopy. Ingestion of 3.0-g bLF significantly retarded adenomatous polyp growth in participants 63 years old or younger. Removal of adenomatous colorectal polyps is done as a preventative measure against colorectal cancer; however, polyps can be overlooked, and when detected, polypectomy is not always 100% effective in eradicating a polyp. Our study suggests that daily intake of 3.0 g of bLF could be a clinically beneficial adjunct to colorectal polyp extraction.

  M Takaoka , D Nagata , S Kihara , I Shimomura , Y Kimura , Y Tabata , Y Saito , R Nagai and M. Sata

Rationale: Obesity is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular complications. However, the molecular link between obesity and vascular disease is not fully understood. Most previous studies have focused on the association between cardiovascular disease and accumulation of visceral fat. Periadventitial fat is distributed ubiquitously around arteries throughout the body.

Objective: Here, we investigated the impact of obesity on inflammation in the periadventitial adipose tissue and on lesion formation after vascular injury.

Methods and Results: High-fat, high-sucrose feeding induced inflammatory changes and decreased adiponectin expression in the periadventitial adipose tissue, which was associated with enhanced neointima formation after endovascular injury. Removal of periadventitial fat markedly enhanced neointima formation after injury, which was attenuated by transplantation of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mice fed on regular chow. Adiponectin-deficient mice showed markedly enhanced lesion formation, which was reversed by local delivery, but not systemic administration, of recombinant adiponectin to the periadventitial area. The conditioned medium from subcutaneous fat attenuated increased cell number of smooth muscle cells in response to platelet derived growth factor-BB.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that periadventitial fat may protect against neointimal formation after angioplasty under physiological conditions and that inflammatory changes in the periadventitial fat may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease accelerated by obesity.

  H Nakagawa , Y Morikawa , Y Mizuno , E Harada , T Ito , K Matsui , Y Saito and H. Yasue

Background— Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease. However, similarities and differences between coronary spasm and atherosclerosis are not known. We examined the angiographic characteristics of coronary spasm in comparison with those of atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results— Thirty-two left anterior descending arteries, 11 left circumflex arteries, and 23 right coronary arteries with spasm and atherosclerotic plaque were analyzed for the localization of spasm in comparison with that of plaque in 47 patients (38 men and 9 women, mean age 66.8±10.3 yrs). Spasm predominantly occurred at the branch point as compared with plaque in each of the 3 arteries (76.7% versus 23.3%, P<0.0001; 72.7% versus 9.1%, P<0.039; and 60.0% versus 10.0%, P=0.002, in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively). Spasm involved the proximal segment less frequently as compared with plaque in each of the 3 arteries (56.7% versus 93.3%, P<0.0001; 18.2% versus 81.8%, P=0.016; and 15.0% versus 75.0%, P<0.0001 in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively). Most spasms occurred at the nonplaque site in each of the 3 arteries (73.3%, P=0.018; 100%, P<0.0001; and 75.0%, P=0.041 in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively).

Conclusion— Coronary spasm preferentially occurred at branch points and nonplaque sites, whereas the atherosclerotic lesion was predominantly localized at the nonbranch points of the curved proximal segments. Coronary spasm may thus be a manifestation of a distinct type of arteriosclerosis different from the lipid-laden coronary atherosclerosis.

  J Moriya , T Minamino , K Tateno , N Shimizu , Y Kuwabara , Y Sato , Y Saito and I. Komuro

Background— Injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells has been reported to promote neovascularization of ischemic tissues effectively. We found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells were as efficient as bone marrow mononuclear cells for the treatment of limb ischemia in animals and showed that this treatment was feasible and safe in no-option patients with limb ischemia. However, the long-term outcome of such therapy has not been investigated.

Methods and Results— We retrospectively analyzed the data for 42 patients who were treated between July 2002 and December 2005 by using the log-rank test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model. Improvement of ischemic symptoms was observed in 60% to 70% of the patients. The annual rate of major amputation was decreased markedly by treatment. Improvement of ischemic symptoms was less marked in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) patients on dialysis compared with nonhemodialysis ASO or thromboangiitis obliterans patients. Indeed, the survival rate of these patients was lower than that of nonhemodialysis ASO or thromboangiitis obliterans patients. Major adverse events such as death, major amputation, and cardiovascular events occurred mostly in ASO patients, and most of them were on dialysis. There was no significant difference in the cardiovascular event-free rate between responders and nonresponders. The survival rate of younger responders was better than that of nonresponders.

Conclusions— Although this study was not placebo-controlled and these initial results were from a retrospective analysis, injection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells might be safe and potentially effective for the treatment of limb ischemia, but caution is needed when managing ASO patients on dialysis.

  K Akasaka Manya , H Manya , Y Sakurai , B. S Wojczyk , Y Saito , N Taniguchi , S Murayama and S. L Spitalnik

Alteration of glycoprotein glycans often changes various properties of the target glycoprotein and contributes to a wide variety of diseases. Here, we focused on the N-glycans of amyloid precursor protein whose cleaved fragment, β-amyloid, is thought to cause much of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously determined the N-glycan structures of normal and mutant amyloid precursor proteins (the Swedish type and the London type). In comparison with normal amyloid precursor protein, mutant amyloid precursor proteins had higher contents of bisecting GlcNAc residues. Because N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) is the glycosyltransferase responsible for synthesizing a bisecting GlcNAc residue, the current report measured GnT-III mRNA expression levels in the brains of AD patients. Interestingly, GnT-III mRNA expression was increased in AD brains. Furthermore, β-amyloid treatment increased GnT-III mRNA expression in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. We then examined the influence of bisecting GlcNAc on the production of β-amyloid. Both β-amyloid 40 and β-amyloid 42 were significantly decreased in GnT-III-transfected cells. When secretase activities were analyzed in GnT-III transfectant cells, -secretase activity was increased. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of GnT-III in AD brains may represent an adaptive response to protect them from additional β-amyloid production.

  S. i Kagami , T Owada , H Kanari , Y Saito , A Suto , K Ikeda , K Hirose , N Watanabe , I Iwamoto and H. Nakajima

Recent studies have suggested that statins, the inhibitors for 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase in the mevalonate pathway, exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. However, the immune modulatory effects of statins on the differentiation of CD4+ T cells and their underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. To address these issues, we examined the effect of simvastatin and inhibitors for protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation on the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells) and Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells. Simvastatin inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells through the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity but enhanced the differentiation of Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells. Geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor, GGTI-298, but not farnesyltransferase inhibitor, FTI-277, mimicked the effects of simvastatin, indicating that the inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for the effects. Moreover, Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells developed in the presence of transforming growth factor-β and GGTI-298 functioned as regulatory T cells (Tregs) in in vitro T cell proliferation assay as well as in an autoimmune colitis model. Finally, GGTI-298 induced SOCS3 expression and inhibited IL-6-induced signal transducers and activators of transcription3 phosphorylation in CD4+ T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that protein geranylgeranylation enhances the differentiation of Th17 cells and inhibits the differentiation of Foxp3+ Tregs partly via the inhibition of SOCS3 expression.

  M Sugimoto , T Shiraishi , H Tsunemori , T Demura , Y Saito , T Kamoto and Y. Kakehi

The present study was carried out to analyze pathological features of prostatectomy specimens performed at different timing and trigger during active surveillance.


One hundred and thirty-four patients that fit a selection condition similar to the so-called Hopkins' criteria were enrolled into the present study between January 2002 and December 2003. Patients were recommended to start curable treatment when they showed prostate-specific antigen-doubling time of 2 years or shorter or pathological progression at 1-year re-biopsy. Median observation period was 61 months.


Fourteen patients underwent radical prostatectomy immediately after enrollment (Group A) whereas 28 patients underwent radical prostatectomy after substantial periods of active surveillance (Group B). Of the 28 Group B, trigger of radical prostatectomy was on protocol in 17 patients (Group B1) whereas 11 patients underwent radical prostatectomy by their preference (Group B2). Upgrade from initial biopsy was observed in 43% of Group A and 68% of Group B. Upgrade was more frequently observed in Group B1 than B2 with border line significance (P = 0.075). Perineural infiltration and positive surgical margin rates of Group B1 were significantly higher than those of B2 (P < 0.05).


Unfavorable pathological features of surgical specimens were more frequently observed in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy due to short prostate-specific antigen-doubling time or biopsy findings than those who underwent radical prostatectomy because of other reasons including patients' preference. Rates of unfavorable pathological features at radical prostatectomy that deviate initial selection criteria was high enough to support integration of frequent biopsies into active surveillance program.

  Y Saito , N Murata Kamiya , T Hirayama , Y Ohba and M. Hatakeyama

The Helicobacter pylori CagA bacterial oncoprotein plays a critical role in gastric carcinogenesis. Upon delivery into epithelial cells, CagA causes loss of polarity and activates aberrant Erk signaling. We show that CagA-induced Erk activation results in senescence and mitogenesis in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cells, respectively. In nonpolarized epithelial cells, Erk activation results in oncogenic stress, up-regulation of the p21Waf1/Cip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and induction of senescence. In polarized epithelial cells, CagA-driven Erk signals prevent p21Waf1/Cip1 expression by activating a guanine nucleotide exchange factor–H1–RhoA–RhoA-associated kinase–c-Myc pathway. The microRNAs miR-17 and miR-20a, induced by c-Myc, are needed to suppress p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. CagA also drives an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in polarized epithelial cells. These findings suggest that CagA exploits a polarity-signaling pathway to induce oncogenesis.

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