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Articles by Y Ohashi
Total Records ( 3 ) for Y Ohashi
  T Kozu , G Iinuma , Y Ohashi , Y Saito , T Akasu , D Saito , D. B Alexander , M Iigo , T Kakizoe and H. Tsuda
 

Lactoferrin (LF), a secreted, iron binding glycoprotein originally discovered as a component of milk, is found in a variety of exocrine secretions and in the secondary granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Animal experiments have shown that oral administration of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts anticarcinogenesis effects in the colon and other organs of the rat. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral bLF could inhibit the growth of adenomatous colorectal polyps in human patients. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted in 104 participants, ages 40 to 75 years, with polyps ≤5 mm in diameter and likely to be adenomas. Participants were assigned to receive placebo, 1.5-g bLF, or 3.0-g bLF daily for 12 months. Target adenomatous polyps were monitored by colonoscopy. Ingestion of 3.0-g bLF significantly retarded adenomatous polyp growth in participants 63 years old or younger. Removal of adenomatous colorectal polyps is done as a preventative measure against colorectal cancer; however, polyps can be overlooked, and when detected, polypectomy is not always 100% effective in eradicating a polyp. Our study suggests that daily intake of 3.0 g of bLF could be a clinically beneficial adjunct to colorectal polyp extraction.

  M Terashima , Y Ohashi , H Azumi , K Otsui , H Kaneda , K Awano , S Kobayashi , T Honjo , T Suzuki , K Maeda , M Yokoyama and N. Inoue
 

Background— Coronary arterial remodeling, which is a response to the growth of atherosclerotic plaques, is associated with plaque vulnerability. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NAD(P)H oxidase in the vasculature also plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. In this study, the relationship between coronary arterial remodeling and ROS generation was examined by comparing preinterventional intravascular ultrasound findings of atherosclerotic lesions to the histochemical findings of corresponding specimens obtained by directional coronary atherectomy.

Methods and Results— Predirectional coronary atherectomy intravascular ultrasound images of 49 patients were analyzed. The remodeling index was calculated by dividing the target-lesion external elastic membrane cross-sectional area by the reference-segment external elastic membrane cross-sectional area. Expansive remodeling was defined as a remodeling index of >1.0. ROS generation and NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox expression in directional coronary atherectomy specimens were evaluated using the dihydroethidium staining method and immunohistochemistry as the ratio of the positive area to the total surface area in each specimen, respectively. ROS generation and p22phox expression were significantly greater in lesions with expansive remodeling than in lesions without remodeling (0.18±0.12 versus 0.03±0.02, P<0.0001, 0.10±0.08 versus 0.04±0.05, P=0.0039, respectively). Both ROS generation and p22phox expression significantly correlated with the intravascular ultrasound-derived remodeling index (r=0.77, P<0.0001, r=0.53, P<0.0001, respectively).

Conclusions— Simultaneous examination with intravascular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry analyses suggests that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS is related to the coronary arterial remodeling process associated with plaque vulnerability.

  T Ooga , Y Ohashi , S Kuramitsu , Y Koyama , M Tomita , T Soga and R. Masui
 

A major bacterial alarmone, guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), controls cellular growth under conditions of nutritional starvation. For most bacteria, intracellular ppGpp levels are tightly controlled by the synthesis/degradation cycle of RelA and SpoT activities. This study shows a novel ppGpp regulatory protein governing the cellular growth of Thermus thermophilus, Ndx8, a member of the Nudix pyrophosphatase family that degrades ppGpp to yield guanosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. The ndx8-null mutant strain exhibited early stage growth arrest accompanied by the stationary phase-specific morphologies and global transcriptional modulation under nutritionally defined conditions. Several possible substrate compounds of Ndx8, which specifically accumulated in the ndx8 mutant cells, were identified by employing a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach. Among them, the hydrolytic activity of Ndx8 for ppGpp was significant not only in vitro but also in vivo. Finally, the elimination of ppGpp synthetic activity suppressed the observed phenotype of the ndx8 mutation, suggesting that the function of Ndx8 as a growth regulator is involved in ppGpp accumulation, which is thought to act as a trigger of the growth phase transition. These results suggest a novel mechanism of ppGpp-mediated growth control by the functional relay between Ndx8 and SpoT activity as ppGpp scavengers.

 
 
 
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