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Articles by Y Nomura
Total Records ( 5 ) for Y Nomura
  Y Nomura and C. M. Chemtob
 

Objective  To examine whether the number of maternal psychopathologies is associated with increased clinically significant behavioral problems in preschool children exposed to disaster, using child behavior ratings from multiple informants.

Design  Cross-sectional study.

Setting  Lower Manhattan, New York, New York.

Participants  One hundred two preschool child-mother dyads directly exposed to the World Trade Center attacks.

Exposures  Maternal disorders: 2 (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and depression), 1 (depression or PTSD), or none.

Main Outcome Measures  Maternal depression and PTSD were self-reported. Child behavioral problems were rated by mothers and teachers using a standardized behavioral checklist. For each informant, we created separate dichotomous variables that indicated whether the child's behavioral problems were severe enough to be clinically significant. We then used an analytic technique (generalized estimating equations) that integrates the child behavioral problem ratings by the mother and teachers to derive a more reliable indicator of clinically significant child behavioral problems.

Results  The rate of clinically significant child behavioral problems increased linearly relative to the number of maternal psychopathologies. The number of maternal psychopathologies was associated with a linear increase in functional impairment. Compared with children of mothers without psychopathologies, children of mothers with depression and PTSD were at greater risk for several clinically significant problems, notably, aggressive behavior (relative risk, 13.0), emotionally reactive behavior (11.2), and somatic complaints (10.5). Boys were more likely to have clinically significant behavior problems than were girls.

Conclusion  Concurrent maternal depression and PTSD was associated with dramatic increases in the rate of clinically significant behavioral problems in preschool children, particularly boys, 3 years after the World Trade Center attacks.

  I Matsunari , H Aoki , Y Nomura , N Takeda , W. P Chen , J Taki , K Nakajima , S. G Nekolla , S Kinuya and K. Kajinami
  Background—

Although both 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) imaging and 11C-hydroxyephedrine (11C-HED) positron emission tomography (PET) are used for assessing cardiac sympathetic innervation, their relationship remains unknown. The aims were to determine whether 123I-MIBG parameters such as heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) are associated with quantitative measures by 11C-HED PET and to compare image quality, defect size, and location between 123I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 11C-HED PET.

Methods and Results—

Twenty-one patients (mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 39±15%) underwent 123I-MIBG imaging and 11C-HED PET. Early (15-minute), late (3-hour) H/M, and washout rate (WR) were calculated for 123I-MIBG. Myocardial retention and WR was calculated for 11C-HED. Using a polar map approach, defect was defined as the area with relative activity <60% of the maximum. Both the early (r=0.76) and late (r=0.84) 123I-MIBG H/M were correlated with 11C-HED retention. 123I-MIBG WR was correlated with 11C-HED WR (r=0.57). Defect size could not be measured in 3 patients because of poor quality 123I-MIBG SPECT, whereas 11C-HED defect was measurable in all patients. Although defect size measured by early or late 123I-MIBG SPECT was closely correlated with that by 11C-HED PET (early: r=0.94; late: r=0.88), the late 123I-MIBG overestimated defect size particularly in the inferior and septal regions.

Conclusions—

123I-MIBG H/M gives a reliable estimate of cardiac sympathetic innervation as measured by 11C-HED PET. Furthermore, despite the close correlation in defect size, 11C-HED PET appears to be more suitable for assessing regional abnormalities than does 123I-MIBG SPECT.

  T Tominaga , I Kimijima , M Kimura , Y Takatsuka , S Takashima , Y Nomura , F Kasumi , A Yamaguchi , N Masuda , S Noguchi and N. Eshima
  Objective

Toremifene and tamoxifen have been used for adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal patients with breast cancer in Japan. Dyslipidemias are common in post-menopausal women. However, limited data are available on the effects of these agents on lipid profiles in Japanese patients. The Japan Toremifene Cooperative Study Group has been conducting a Phase III randomized trial of post-menopausal patients with breast cancer. One of its secondary endpoints is to confirm the effects of these agents on serum lipid profiles.

Methods

The subjects were post-menopausal Japanese patients who had undergone surgery for early breast cancer. Toremifene or tamoxifen was administered for 2 years. Lipid levels were measured before and up to 24 months after initiation.

Results

Compared with baseline, at 24 months, the toremifene group (n = 123) showed significantly decreased total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.001), and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.001). Their triglyceride levels were not affected (P = 0.677). The tamoxifen group (n = 120) also showed significantly decreased total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.001); no significant changes occurred in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.297) or triglyceride levels (P = 0.120).

Conclusions

Distinct differences between two selective estrogen receptor modulators on lipids were observed. Toremifene improved lipid profiles, particularly as an enhancer of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. To a large extent, tamoxifen improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The impact of these improved lipid profiles on the risk of cardiovascular diseases needs further confirmation.

  K Kaneko , K Furuya , A. B Hungria , J. C Hernandez Garrido , P. A Midgley , T Onodera , H Kasai , Y Yaguchi , H Oikawa , Y Nomura , H Harada , T Ishihara and N. Baba
 

Organic crystals, such as phthalocyanine nanocrystal, were successfully hybridized with Pt nanoparticles using a nanohybridization technique. The presence of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on the surface of phthalocyanine was confirmed by the combination of transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional electron tomography. Catalytic activities of hybridized samples with different degrees of dispersions were also examined as oxygen reduction reactivity (ORR) with a linear potential sweep method. It was found that oxygen reduction activity increased with increasing Pt dispersion, and reasonably high ORR was observed on Pt-dispersed phthalocyanine nanocrystal even at 2 wt% Pt loading.

 
 
 
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