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Articles by Y Morita
Total Records ( 3 ) for Y Morita
  H Koike , N Atsuta , H Adachi , M Iijima , M Katsuno , T Yasuda , Y Fukada , K Yasui , K Nakashima , M Horiuchi , K Shiomi , K Fukui , S Takashima , Y Morita , K Kuniyoshi , Y Hasegawa , Y Toribe , M Kajiura , S Takeshita , E Mukai and G. Sobue
 

Acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy is a rare disorder that has been only anecdotally reported. We characterized the clinical, electrophysiological, pathological and prognostic features of 21 patients with acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. An antecedent event, mostly an upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal tract infection, was reported in two-thirds of patients. Profound autonomic failure with various degrees of sensory impairment characterized the neuropathic features in all patients. The initial symptoms were those related to autonomic disturbance or superficial sensory impairment in all patients, while deep sensory impairment accompanied by sensory ataxia subsequently appeared in 12 patients. The severity of sensory ataxia tended to become worse as the duration from the onset to the peak phase of neuropathy became longer (P < 0.001). The distribution of sensory manifestations included the proximal regions of the limbs, face, scalp and trunk in most patients. It tended to be asymmetrical and segmental, rather than presenting as a symmetric polyneuropathy. Pain of the involved region was a common and serious symptom. In addition to autonomic and sensory symptoms, coughing episodes, psychiatric symptoms, sleep apnoea and aspiration, pneumonia made it difficult to manage the clinical condition. Nerve conduction studies revealed the reduction of sensory nerve action potentials in patients with sensory ataxia, while it was relatively preserved in patients without sensory ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord revealed a high-intensity area in the posterior column on T2*-weighted gradient echo image in patients with sensory ataxia but not in those without it. Sural nerve biopsy revealed small-fibre predominant axonal loss without evidence of nerve regeneration. In an autopsy case with impairment of both superficial and deep sensations, we observed severe neuronal cell loss in the thoracic sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia, and Auerbach’s plexus with well preserved anterior hone cells. Myelinated fibres in the anterior spinal root were preserved, while those in the posterior spinal root and the posterior column of the spinal cord were depleted. Although recovery of sensory impairment was poor, autonomic dysfunction was ameliorated to some degree within several months in most patients. In conclusion, an immune-mediated mechanism may be associated with acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Small neuronal cells in the autonomic and sensory ganglia may be affected in the initial phase, and subsequently, large neuronal cells in the sensory ganglia are damaged.

  S Yamada , H Ishii , H Takahashi , T Aoyama , Y Morita , H Kasuga , K Kimura , Y Ito , R Takahashi , T Toriyama , Y Yasuda , M Hayashi , H Kamiya , Y Yuzawa , S Maruyama , S Matsuo , T Matsubara and T. Murohara
 

Background and objectives: Cardiac failure is directly affected by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and particularly LV systolic dysfunction is strongly associated with survival in ESRD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) measured at the time of initiation of hemodialysis (HD) in incident HD patients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: 1254 consecutive ESRD patients who electively started HD therapy were screened by echocardiography within 1 month after its inception. They were divided into five groups according to LVEF levels with a decrease of 0.1 each and were followed up for up to 7 years. Survival was examined with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.

Results: Among the 1254 patients, LVEF levels ≥0.6, 0.5 to 0.6, 0.4 to 0.5, 0.3 to 0.4, and <0.3 were seen in 842 (67.1%), 247 (19.7%), 107 (8.5%), 41 (3.3%), and 17 (1.4%) patients, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 7-year event-free rates from cardiovascular death were 84.2, 83.7, 73.6, 59.4, and 30.9% in order of groups with decreasing LVEF of 0.1 each, respectively. Seven-year event-free rates from all-cause death were 69.2, 61.7, 57.1, 45.9, and 23.1% in the respective groups. Even after adjustment for other risk factors, decreasing LVEF was a strong independent predictor for cardiovascular death.

Conclusions: Reduced LVEF on starting HD therapy could stratify risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in ESRD patients. Screening by echocardiography at start of HD therapy might be recommended to predict prognosis in patients with ESRD.

  Y Fujimura , H Kitaura , M Yoshimatsu , T Eguchi , H Kohara , Y Morita and N. Yoshida
 

Mechanical stress such as orthodontic tooth movement induces osteoclastogenesis. Sometimes, excessive mechanical stress results in root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. It has been reported that bisphosphonate inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Recently, there have been concerns for orthodontic patients receiving bisphosphonates. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bisphosphonates on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in mice.

A nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring delivering a force of 10 g was inserted between the upper anterior alveolar bone and the first molar in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Bisphosphonate (2 µg/20 µl) was injected daily into a local site adjacent to the upper molar. After 12 days, the distance the tooth had moved was measured. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells was counted as osteoclasts in histological sections. Root resorption was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The data were analysed with a Student's t-test.

The orthodontic appliance increased the number of osteoclasts on the pressure side and mesial movement of the first molar. Bisphosphonates reduced the amount of tooth movement and the number of osteoclasts. In addition, they also reduced root resorption on the pressure side.

Bisphosphonates inhibit orthodontic tooth movement and prevent root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in mice. These results suggest that bisphosphonates might have an inhibiting effect on root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in humans and that they may interrupt tooth movement in orthodontic patients undergoing treatment, thus altering the outcome of treatment.

 
 
 
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