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Articles by Y Kuwabara
Total Records ( 4 ) for Y Kuwabara
  H Kinoshita , K Kuwahara , M Takano , Y Arai , Y Kuwabara , S Yasuno , Y Nakagawa , M Nakanishi , M Harada , M Fujiwara , M Murakami , K Ueshima and K. Nakao

Background— Pharmacological interventions for prevention of sudden arrhythmic death in patients with chronic heart failure remain limited. Accumulating evidence suggests increased ventricular expression of T-type Ca2+ channels contributes to the progression of heart failure. The ability of T-type Ca2+ channel blockade to prevent lethal arrhythmias associated with heart failure has never been tested, however.

Methods and Results— We compared the effects of efonidipine and mibefradil, dual T- and L-type Ca2+ channel blockers, with those of nitrendipine, a selective L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, on survival and arrhythmogenicity in a cardiac-specific, dominant-negative form of neuron-restrictive silencer factor transgenic mice (dnNRSF-Tg), which is a useful mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy leading to sudden death. Efonidipine, but not nitrendipine, substantially improved survival among dnNRSF-Tg mice. Arrhythmogenicity was dramatically reduced in dnNRSF-Tg mice treated with efonidipine or mibefradil. Efonidipine acted by reversing depolarization of the resting membrane potential otherwise seen in ventricular myocytes from dnNRSF-Tg mice and by correcting cardiac autonomic nervous system imbalance. Moreover, the R(–)-isomer of efonidipine, a recently identified, highly selective T-type Ca2+ channel blocker, similarly improved survival among dnNRSF-Tg mice. Efonidipine also reduced the incidence of sudden death and arrhythmogenicity in mice with acute myocardial infarction.

Conclusions— T-type Ca2+ channel blockade reduced arrhythmias in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy by repolarizing the resting membrane potential and improving cardiac autonomic nervous system imbalance. T-type Ca2+ channel blockade also prevented sudden death in mice with myocardial infarction. Our findings suggest T-type Ca2+ channel blockade is a potentially useful approach to preventing sudden death in patients with heart failure.

  J Moriya , T Minamino , K Tateno , N Shimizu , Y Kuwabara , Y Sato , Y Saito and I. Komuro

Background— Injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells has been reported to promote neovascularization of ischemic tissues effectively. We found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells were as efficient as bone marrow mononuclear cells for the treatment of limb ischemia in animals and showed that this treatment was feasible and safe in no-option patients with limb ischemia. However, the long-term outcome of such therapy has not been investigated.

Methods and Results— We retrospectively analyzed the data for 42 patients who were treated between July 2002 and December 2005 by using the log-rank test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model. Improvement of ischemic symptoms was observed in 60% to 70% of the patients. The annual rate of major amputation was decreased markedly by treatment. Improvement of ischemic symptoms was less marked in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) patients on dialysis compared with nonhemodialysis ASO or thromboangiitis obliterans patients. Indeed, the survival rate of these patients was lower than that of nonhemodialysis ASO or thromboangiitis obliterans patients. Major adverse events such as death, major amputation, and cardiovascular events occurred mostly in ASO patients, and most of them were on dialysis. There was no significant difference in the cardiovascular event-free rate between responders and nonresponders. The survival rate of younger responders was better than that of nonresponders.

Conclusions— Although this study was not placebo-controlled and these initial results were from a retrospective analysis, injection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells might be safe and potentially effective for the treatment of limb ischemia, but caution is needed when managing ASO patients on dialysis.

  M Yamaguchi , S. K Biswas , Y Kuwabara , M Ohkusu , M Shimizu and K. Takeo

The spindle pole body (SPB) in the interphase cell of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans was studied in detail by freeze-substitution and serial ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy. The SPB was located on the outer nuclear envelope and appeared either dumbbell- or bar shaped. The dumbbell-shaped SPBs were 228–365 nm long with amorphous spheres on each end, each sphere being 78–157 nm in diameter. The bar-shaped SPBs were 103–260 nm long and 32–113 nm thick. They consisted of filamentous materials. The dumbbell-shaped SPBs were more frequent (61%) than the bar-shaped SPBs. The bar-shaped SPBs may be regarded as dumbbell-shaped SPBs whose spherical parts became sufficiently small. There seemed to be no relationship between the SPB shape and the cell cycle stage of G1–G2, since both types of SPB appeared not only in unbudded cells but also in budded cells and their appearance seems to be random. It is not clear at present whether morphological changes between dumbbell- and bar shapes have any physiological function. The SPB tended to be localized away from the nucleolus (141° ± 44°), but localized randomly to the bud (97° ± 50°). The present study highlights the necessity of observing a large number of micrographs in three dimensions to describe accurately the ultrastructure of the SPB in yeast.

  M Kinoshita , K Ono , T Horie , K Nagao , H Nishi , Y Kuwabara , R Takanabe Mori , K Hasegawa , T Kita and T. Kimura

Retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis was applied in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells to better understand the molecular basis of obesity (the expansion of individual adipocytes). We found that tryptophan hydroxylase-1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT), is expressed in adipocytes and is required for their differentiation. A 5-HT type 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist, ketanserin, and a 5-HT2cR antagonist, SB-242084, inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Because 5-HT2cR mRNA levels are up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation and micro-RNA (miR)-448 is located in the fourth intron of Htr2c, we also studied the role of miR-448 in 3T3-L1 cells. Through a bioinformatics approach, Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) was identified as a potential target of miR-448. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-448 targets the Klf5 3'-intranslated region. Overexpression of miR-448 reduced the expression of Klf5 and adipocyte differentiation, which was confirmed by the reduced expression of adipogenic genes and triglyceride accumulation. To examine the loss of miR-448 function, we constructed a decoy gene that had tandem complementary sequences for miR-448 in the 3'-untranslated region of a luciferase gene under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. When the miR-448 decoy gene was introduced into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, KLF5 was up-regulated and triglyceride concentration was increased. In this study, we identified the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, and 5-HT2CR. miR-448-mediated repression of KLF5 was identified as a negative regulator for adipocyte differentiation.

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