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Articles by Y Koyama
Total Records ( 3 ) for Y Koyama
  T Kurotobi , K Iwakura , K Inoue , R Kimura , A Okamura , Y Koyama , Y Tosyoshima , N Ito and K. Fujii
 

Background— The presence of multiple arrhythmogenic sources may be associated with the perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that multiple foci might be involved in the development of AF persistency.

Methods and Results— Two hundred fourteen consecutive patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation were enrolled in this study. The location of the arrhythmogenic foci was determined using simultaneous recordings from multipolar catheters before and after pulmonary vein isolation during an isoproterenol administration. We detected 500 arrhythmogenic foci (263 foci as AF initiators, and 237 foci as non-AF initiators). High-dose isoproterenol infusions (ranging from 2 to 20 µg/min) revealed potential arrhythmogenic foci, especially non–pulmonary vein foci (55%). Persistent AF was more highly associated with an incidence of multiple (>2) foci than paroxysmal AF (88% versus 65%, P=0.002), and a multivariate analysis demonstrated that multiple foci (>2) were an independent contributing factor for persistent AF (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 4.69; 1.82 to 12.09, P<0.001). In paroxysmal AF, the number of foci was higher in patients with long-term AF (>24 hours) than in those with short-lasting AF (2.64±0.14 versus 1.77±0.16, P=0.001). In the persistent AF group, the patients with short-lasting AF (<12 months) had a greater number of foci than did those with long-term AF (>12 months) (3.62±0.15 versus 1.92±0.16, P=0.04).

Conclusions— Multiple foci were likely to be involved in the development of persistent AF. However, if AF persisted for >12 months, they may not have had a significant effect on the AF perpetuation.

  A Hiramatsu , Y Iwasaki , Y Koyama , N Tamiya , S Hosogi , M Nakanishi , Y Kohno , M Ueda , T Arimoto and Y. Marunaka
  Objective

Cisplatin is widely used for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. However, it can cause unpleasant side effects and also requires prolonged hydration. We conducted a Phase II study of weekly gemcitabine and split-dose cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in order to reduce toxicity and shorten the time taken by administration. Our aims were to determine the response rate, toxicity and survival time with this regimen in patients with Stage IIIB/IV disease.

Methods

Previously untreated patients with Stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were given gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) and split-dose cisplatin (40 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8 at 3-week intervals for four cycles. Gemcitabine was administered over the course of 30 min, and cisplatin was over the course of 60 min on the same days on an outpatient basis.

Results

Forty-five patients were enrolled, and all of them were assessable for response and toxicity. None had a complete response and 17 had a partial response (37.8%), for an overall response rate of 37.8% (95% confidence interval, 25.1–52.4%). The survival rate was 56.5% at 1 year and 38.9% at 2 years, with a median survival time of 15.7 months. Leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were the most common toxic reactions, with Grade ≥ 3 reactions occurring at rates of 35%, 51%, 31% and 13%, respectively.

Conclusions

Weekly gemcitabine and split-dose cisplatin is active and well tolerated in patients with Stage IIIB/IV NSCLC, administered on an outpatient basis without requiring prolonged hydration or hospitalization.

  T Ooga , Y Ohashi , S Kuramitsu , Y Koyama , M Tomita , T Soga and R. Masui
 

A major bacterial alarmone, guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), controls cellular growth under conditions of nutritional starvation. For most bacteria, intracellular ppGpp levels are tightly controlled by the synthesis/degradation cycle of RelA and SpoT activities. This study shows a novel ppGpp regulatory protein governing the cellular growth of Thermus thermophilus, Ndx8, a member of the Nudix pyrophosphatase family that degrades ppGpp to yield guanosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. The ndx8-null mutant strain exhibited early stage growth arrest accompanied by the stationary phase-specific morphologies and global transcriptional modulation under nutritionally defined conditions. Several possible substrate compounds of Ndx8, which specifically accumulated in the ndx8 mutant cells, were identified by employing a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach. Among them, the hydrolytic activity of Ndx8 for ppGpp was significant not only in vitro but also in vivo. Finally, the elimination of ppGpp synthetic activity suppressed the observed phenotype of the ndx8 mutation, suggesting that the function of Ndx8 as a growth regulator is involved in ppGpp accumulation, which is thought to act as a trigger of the growth phase transition. These results suggest a novel mechanism of ppGpp-mediated growth control by the functional relay between Ndx8 and SpoT activity as ppGpp scavengers.

 
 
 
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